Ethnic Enclaves and Immigrant Earnings Growth

22 Pages Posted: 19 May 2007


The impact of living in an ethnic enclave on earnings growth of immigrants in Canada is examined using the 1981-2001 Censuses. Consistent with U.S. findings, enclaves are found to have a negative impact on the earnings growth of male immigrants. A negative impact is also found for female immigrants. Living in an enclave was found to be particularly harmful for individuals immigrating as adults, especially for females, but did not affect immigrants who arrived at a young age. Enclaves had a more negative impact on high-skilled male immigrants, especially if they had received the bulk of their education outside Canada. Enclaves were also found to hinder language skills.

Suggested Citation

Warman, Casey, Ethnic Enclaves and Immigrant Earnings Growth. Canadian Journal of Economics, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 401-422, May 2007, Available at SSRN: or

Casey Warman (Contact Author)

Dalhousie University ( email )

Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5

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