Mandatory or Not Mandatory - Is that the Difference? The Nature of Overtime Work by Characteristics of Workers, Jobs and Employers

Posted: 27 Jun 2007

See all articles by Lonnie Golden

Lonnie Golden

Pennsylvania State University - Abington College; Economic Policy Institute; Project for Middle Class Renewal

Barbara Wiens-Tuers

Pennsylvania State University

Date Written: December 2005

Abstract

Analysis of the 2002 General Social Survey (GSS) Quality of Work Life Module finds that 21 percent of full-time employees worked extra hours because it was mandatory and 28 percent face required overtime work as a working condition- a slight increase since 1977. Logistic regressions find that the likelihood of working mandatory overtime, relative to working overtime that is non-mandatory or working no overtime at all, is enhanced by having certain demographic, job and workplace characteristics. This includes being male, foreign-born and full-time, employed in nonprofits and certain industries and occupational classifications. It is further enhanced by several workplace and job characteristics. This includes having more inflexible work schedules, seniority, difficulty finding alternative jobs, bonus compensation structures, a poor relationship with and low trust of management. Some characteristics of workers and workplaces increase the likelihood of working overtime that is non-mandatory. These include being single, satisfied with one's job, a union member, employed in public sector and standard (rather than contingent) jobs and having say in one's job. Potential implications are discussed for organizations, labor relations and employment law as well as for expected occupational health and safety outcomes measured in the GSS.

Keywords: Hours of Work, Overtime Work, Labor Relations, Labor Flexibility

JEL Classification: J21, J22, J23, J53

Suggested Citation

Golden, Lonnie and Wiens-Tuers, Barbara, Mandatory or Not Mandatory - Is that the Difference? The Nature of Overtime Work by Characteristics of Workers, Jobs and Employers (December 2005). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=995216 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.995216

Lonnie Golden (Contact Author)

Pennsylvania State University - Abington College ( email )

1600 Woodland Rd.
Abington, PA 19001
United States
215-881-7596 (Phone)
215-881-7333 (Fax)

Economic Policy Institute ( email )

1660 L Street NW, Suite 1200
Washington, DC 20036
United States

Project for Middle Class Renewal ( email )

1408 W. Gregory Dr.
Urbana, IL 61801
United States

Barbara Wiens-Tuers

Pennsylvania State University ( email )

University Park
State College, PA 16802
United States

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