Mandatory or Not Mandatory - Is that the Difference? The Nature of Overtime Work by Characteristics of Workers, Jobs and Employers
Posted: 27 Jun 2007
Date Written: December 2005
Analysis of the 2002 General Social Survey (GSS) Quality of Work Life Module finds that 21 percent of full-time employees worked extra hours because it was mandatory and 28 percent face required overtime work as a working condition- a slight increase since 1977. Logistic regressions find that the likelihood of working mandatory overtime, relative to working overtime that is non-mandatory or working no overtime at all, is enhanced by having certain demographic, job and workplace characteristics. This includes being male, foreign-born and full-time, employed in nonprofits and certain industries and occupational classifications. It is further enhanced by several workplace and job characteristics. This includes having more inflexible work schedules, seniority, difficulty finding alternative jobs, bonus compensation structures, a poor relationship with and low trust of management. Some characteristics of workers and workplaces increase the likelihood of working overtime that is non-mandatory. These include being single, satisfied with one's job, a union member, employed in public sector and standard (rather than contingent) jobs and having say in one's job. Potential implications are discussed for organizations, labor relations and employment law as well as for expected occupational health and safety outcomes measured in the GSS.
Keywords: Hours of Work, Overtime Work, Labor Relations, Labor Flexibility
JEL Classification: J21, J22, J23, J53
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation