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Conceptualizing the Circular Economy: An Analysis of 114 Definitions

Julian Kirchherr, Utrecht University - Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development
Denise Reike, Utrecht University - Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development
Marko Hekkert, Utrecht University - Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development

Note-Taking in the Digital Age: Evidence from Classroom Random Control Trials

Benjamin Artz, University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh - College of Business
Marianne Johnson, University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh - Department of Economics
Denise Robson, University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh
Sarinda Taengnoi, University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh


ECONOMICS EDUCATOR: COURSES, CASES & TEACHING eJOURNAL

"Conceptualizing the Circular Economy: An Analysis of 114 Definitions" Free Download

JULIAN KIRCHHERR, Utrecht University - Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development
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DENISE REIKE, Utrecht University - Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development
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MARKO HEKKERT, Utrecht University - Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development
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The circular economy concept has gained momentum both among scholars and practitioners. However, critics claim that it means many different things to different people. This paper provides further evidence for these critics. The aim of this paper is to create transparency regarding the current understandings of the circular economy concept. For this purpose, we have gathered 114 circular economy definitions which were coded on 17 dimensions. Our findings indicate that the circular economy is most frequently depicted as a combination of reduce, reuse and recycle activities, whereas it is oftentimes not highlighted that CE necessitates a systemic shift. We further find that the definitions show few explicit linkages of the circular economy concept to sustainable development. The main aim of the circular economy is considered to be economic prosperity, followed by environmental quality; its impact on social equity and future generations is barely mentioned. Furthermore, neither business models nor consumers are frequently outlined as enablers of the circular economy. We critically discuss the various circular economy conceptualizations throughout this paper. Overall, we hope to contribute via this study towards the coherence of the circular economy concept; we presume that significantly varying circular economy definitions may eventually result in the collapse of the concept.

"Note-Taking in the Digital Age: Evidence from Classroom Random Control Trials" Free Download

BENJAMIN ARTZ, University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh - College of Business
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MARIANNE JOHNSON, University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh - Department of Economics
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DENISE ROBSON, University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh
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SARINDA TAENGNOI, University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh
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The prevalence of laptop and tablet computers in the classroom raises the question of how their use impacts student learning. Classroom observational studies generally find that students who choose to take notes on a computer do worse than their paper note-taking peers. Yet it has been difficult to disentangle whether this result is due to the process of taking notes on the computer or instead the inherent characteristics of the student choosing to use the computer. To our knowledge we are the first to address this issue by employing a within-subjects random control trial experiment in college classrooms. By requiring each student in our sample to participate in both computer and paper note-taking, our experiment allows us to separate the effects of taking notes on a computer from the choice to take notes on the computer. In doing so, our results indicate that for a typical student in an introductory economics course, computer note-taking does not have a statistically meaningful impact on student performance.

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Economics Educator: Courses, Cases & Teaching eJournal

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WILLIAM L. GOFFE
Associate Professor of Economics, SUNY Oswego - Department of Economics

PAUL W. GRIMES
Dean, Kelce College of Business, Pittsburg State University, Emeritus Professor of Economics, Mississippi State University - College of Business

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Professor of Economics, University of Richmond - E. Claiborne Robins School of Business

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Professor of Economics and Director of the Center for Economic Education, Purdue University - Department of Economics