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The SSRN developed the Anthropology & Archaeology Research Network with support from the American Anthropological Association (AAA). Founded in 1902, the AAA is the world's largest professional and scholarly society of anthropologists. AAA publishes 23 journals and a member magazine, supports professional development, and hosts several meetings and conferences each year to promote knowledge exchange and its use to solve human problems. Visit americananthro.org for additional information about the organization.



BIOLOGY & ANTHROPOLOGY eJOURNAL

"Subsurface Zircons with Presumptive 'Biogenic' Inclusions as Potentially Useful Proxies for Studying Precambrian Bygone Biospheres in Goa" Free Download

SUJATA DABOLKAR, Goa university
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NANDKUMAR KAMAT, Goa University
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This work was inspired by recent report by Bell et al., 2015 who studied potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old Zircon and need to assess the potential of Zircons found in Goa. Zircons (ZrSiO4) are naturally occurring silicate minerals which show radioactivity and high ductility and contain traces of Thorium and Uranium useful in Uranium‚ÄďThorium/Thorium -230 dating techniques. Zircons can be found in igneous, metamorphic rocks , sedimentary deposits and occurs as a detrital minerals in river and beach sands. Previous reports show that the Zircons can occur in different shapes such as round, elongated and with surface characteristics (Gartner et al., 2013). U-Pb Zircon dating methods had been used to study the continental growth in the western Dharwar craton of southern India (Jayananda et al., 2015). The present study was aimed at detection of subsurface Zircons with biogenic inclusions and assess their use as proxies for studying bygone Precambrian biospheres in Goa. Deep tubewell drilled Cores (60 and 65 m deep from surface) in island of Tiswadi at Taleigao were analyzed by light microscopy, Phase contrast microscopy and SEM to detect and classify the Zircons. In rapid preliminary sampling, total 50 Zircons were identified and 98% indicated the presence of interesting inclusions. These could be bubbles or kerogens or unidentified biological material. Zircons were classified as elongated, slightly rounded with sharp edges and showed widespread variety of surface characteristics like fracturing, cracks, scratches, striations and impact pits which may occur during transport processes. It is suggested that Zircons with presumptive biogenic inclusions can be further studied using techniques such as Raman Spectroscopy, Carbon Isotopic Measurements, X-Ray Microscopy, Trace Element Measurement consistent with Bell et al., 2015. More exhaustive studies have been undertaken to create a detail image database of Zircons from various other local samples to pinpoint those specifically useful for advanced work based on image analysis of the presumptive bioinclusions. Further attempts would be made to develop specific harvesting techniques to select potentially useful Zircons. International collaborations would be sought for applications of advanced techniques to local Zircons. Such studies would shed light on nature of bygone Precambrian biospheres in Goa and help in understanding evolution of life and the impact of plate tectonics and cataclysmic events shaping life on this planet.

"An Experiment on Peer Effects Under Different Relative Performance Feedback and Grouping Procedures" Free Download

KATHRIN THIEMANN, University of Hamburg - Department of Economics
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NIKLAS WALLMEIER, University of Hamburg
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We conduct a laboratory experiment to test theoretical predictions from Thiemann (2017) about subjects' performance in an effort task conditional on their peer group's composition and relative performance feedback. Subjects are grouped either randomly or according to their ability, with the feedback being the maximum or average performance of their group. We are able to support theory-derived hypotheses on the influence of ability, competitiveness and loss aversion on optimal performance in the presence of peer effects. While random grouping is beneficial for male subjects it is detrimental for female subjects. Evidence is found for output being more dispersed when the best group performance is given as feedback. Again we find gender differences with male subjects performing significantly better when they compare themselves to the best peer instead of the average, while the opposite is true for females.

"The Importance of Biological Age in the Control System of Training Process of Young Men in Powerlifting" Free Download
Research journal of pharmaceutical, biological and chemical sciences. ‚Äď 2016. - ‚ĄĖ 7(5), –†. 945-954.

VITALIY AVSIYEVICH, Kazakh Academy of Sport and Tourism
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GEORGIY ANDREEVICH PLAKHUTA, Kazakh Academy of Sport and Tourism
ALEXANDER IVANOVICH FYODOROV, South Ural State University (national research university)

For the first time was developed a science-based methodology for managing the training process of young athletes in powerlifting considering the pace of biological development of the organism. The proposed new approach to the management of the training process and methodology of strength training in boys powerlifting taking into account age peculiarities of young athletes on the basis of: dynamics and interactions of morphofunctional indices and sports performance of boys involved in powerlifting given the pace of biological evolution.

The theoretical significance of the work is related to the scientific substantiation of methods of management by training process of young men in powerlifting the essence of which is to revise the traditional ideas about the system of strength training based on age characteristics of the organism of young athletes depending on the pace of biological evolution. The rate of development of age-related physiological changes in the body is associated with the impact of trainingload in powerlifting and is influenced by the pace of biological development of boys.

Application of the methods of management of the training process which are based on a scientifically based program of exercises and the author's method of training of young men that are involved in powerlifting will allow coaches to optimize the training process and prepare high-class athletes without compromising the health of young athletes.

"Are All Types of Discrimination Created Equal?" Free Download

TAMAR KRICHELI‚Ä?KATZ, Tel Aviv University - Buchmann Faculty of Law
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HAGGAI PORAT, Tel Aviv University
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YUVAL FELDMAN, Bar-Ilan University - Faculty of Law
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Why do Israelis discriminate? This project takes an experimental approach to disentangle the different mechanisms generating discrimination in Israel. We let a random sample of the Israeli Jewish population play four games with fictitious partners who belong to one of the following social groups: Women, Arabs, Ultra-Orthodox Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and Ashkenazi Jews. A ‚Äúdictator game‚Ä? was used to investigate negative emotions of dislike; a ‚Äútrust game‚Ä? was used to explore mistrust; A ‚Äúcompetence game‚Ä? was used to explore beliefs about competence and intelligence; and a ‚Äúdonation game‚Ä? was used to investigate beliefs about moral entitlement. Ultra-Orthodox Jews were discriminated against in the dictator game, but were favored in the trust game, suggesting that they are disliked but viewed as trustworthy. Women were generally favored, compared to men, across all games. Mizrahi Jews were not discriminated against in the dictator game, but were given less money by Jewish men in the trust game. This suggests that Mizrahi Jews are not disliked, but are rather viewed as not trustworthy by Jewish men. Above and beyond of all of the other social groups, Arabs were found to be the most discriminated against group, across all of the domains measured in the different games. The implications of this research are broader than just for the population studied, as it highlights the need to better understand the differences and similarities across different forms of discrimination.

"Exposure and Contemporaneousness: Partial Identification of the Effect of Droughts on Children's Cognitive Development" Free Download

Y-LING CHI, World Bank Group
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EDUARDO FE, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow - Strathclyde Business School - Department of Economics
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This paper presents a nonparametric bounds analysis of the causal effect of drought on children's long term cognitive development. By combining a detailed household survey with gridded rainfall data we obtain nonparametric lower bounds under weak monotonicity restrictions. The estimated bounds suggest that drought matters more in rural areas than in urban areas and that its effect is potentially significant during gestation. During the first years of life, however, drought seems to affect only girls.

"Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering: An Introduction to Essentials. (1) Proximity Coefficients and Creation of a Vector-Distance Matrix and (2) Construction of the Hierarchical Tree and a Selection of Methods" 

REFAT ALJUMILY, Freelance Researcher and Lecturer
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The article is on a particular type of cluster analysis, agglomerative hierarchical analysis, and is a series of four main parts. The first part deals with proximity coefficients and the creation of a vector-distance matrix. The second part deals with the construction of the hierarchical tree and introduces a selection of clustering methods. The third deals with a variety of ways to transform data prior to agglomerative cluster analysis. The fourth deals with deals with measures and methods of cluster validity. The fifth and final part deals with hypothesis generation. The present article covers the first and second parts only. It explains how agglomerative cluster analysis works by implementing it in a data matrix step by step. Different types of agglomerative hierarchical clustering methods are applied on purposely-made data matrix so different types of cluster structures are made from that same dataset. The last three parts will be covered in the next publication(s). There are many articles, tutorials, and books on this subject. The article has two main objectives: (1) to keep the discussion short and easy to understand by (hopefully) any reader and (2) to develop the motivation for using agglomerative hierarchical clustering to analyse any high-dimensional data of interest with respect to some research question.

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About this eJournal

Supported by: American Anthropological Association (AAA)

This eJournal distributes working and accepted paper abstracts of biological anthropology studies. The topics in this eJournal include: Paleoanthropology; Modern Human Evolution & Variation; Primatology; Human Ecology & Behavioral Ecology; Forensic Anthropology; Negative Results - Biological Anthropology.

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Anthropology & Archaeology Research Network (AARN), a division of Social Science Electronic Publishing (SSEP) and Social Science Research Network (SSRN)

Directors

AARN SUBJECT MATTER EJOURNALS

LOUISE LAMPHERE
University of New Mexico - Department of Anthropology
Email: lamphere@unm.edu

Please contact us at the above addresses with your comments, questions or suggestions for AARN-Sub.