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Table of Contents

Changed Science Statutes: Can Courts Accommodate Accelerating Forensic Scientific and Technological Change?

Simon A. Cole, University of California, Irvine - Department of Criminology, Law and Society

Simple vs. Complex Carbohydrate Dietary Patterns and the Global Overweight and Obesity Pandemic

Fabrizio Ferro Ferretti, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia (UNIMORE)
Michele Mariani, DCE UNIMORE

Honesty Speaks a Second Language

Yoella Bereby-Meyer, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
Sayuri Hayakawa, University of Chicago
Shaul Shalvi, University of Amsterdam - Amsterdam School of Economics (ASE)
Joanna Corey, Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Albert Costa, Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Boaz Keysar, University of Chicago

Genetic and Environmental Factors in Skin Color Determination

Callixte Yadufashije, Kampala University
Rebero Samuel, Kenyatta University, Students


BIOLOGY & ANTHROPOLOGY eJOURNAL

"Changed Science Statutes: Can Courts Accommodate Accelerating Forensic Scientific and Technological Change?" Free Download
Jurimetrics, Vol. 57, No. 3, 2017

SIMON A. COLE, University of California, Irvine - Department of Criminology, Law and Society
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In the past several years, the nation’s two most populous states have passed new statutes specifically intended to address the issue of rapidly changing scientific and technological knowledge, perhaps signaling a national trend. This reflection article situates a discussion of these “changed science statutes? within a sociological understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge, exploring the question of what it means for scientific knowledge to “change.? It then traces the procedural history of the two cases widely credited with prompting the passage of the statutes and courts’ varying interpretations of the statutes. It suggests that, while changed science statutes offer broad potential for redressing the use of impugned science in closed cases, courts have thus far limited their applicability through narrow interpretation of the statutes.

"Simple vs. Complex Carbohydrate Dietary Patterns and the Global Overweight and Obesity Pandemic" Free Download
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1174; doi:10.3390/ijerph14101174

FABRIZIO FERRO FERRETTI, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia (UNIMORE)
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MICHELE MARIANI, DCE UNIMORE
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Nowadays, obesity and being overweight are among the major global health concerns. Many, diet-related diseases impose high tangible and intangible costs, and threaten the sustainability of health-care systems worldwide. In this study, we model, at the macroeconomic level, the impact of energy intake from different types of carbohydrates on the population’s BMI (body mass index).

We proceed in three steps. First, we develop a framework to analyse both the consumption choices between simple and complex carbohydrates and the effects of these choices on people health conditions. Second, we collect figures for 185 countries (over the period 2012–2014) regarding the shares of simple (sugar and sweetener) and complex (cereal) carbohydrates in each country’s total dietary energy supply.

Third, we use regression techniques to:

(1) estimate the impact of these shares on the country’s prevalence of obesity and being overweight;

(2) compute for each country an indicator of dietary pattern based on the ratio between simple and complex carbohydrates, weighted by their estimated effects on the prevalence of obesity and being overweight; and

(3) measure the elasticity of the prevalence of obesity and being overweight with respect to changes in both carbohydrate dietary pattern and income per capita.

We find that unhealthy eating habits and the associated prevalence of excessive body fat accumulation tend to behave as a ‘normal good’ in low, medium- and high-HDI (Human Development Index) countries, but as an ‘inferior good’ in very high-HDI countries.

"Honesty Speaks a Second Language" Free Download

YOELLA BEREBY-MEYER, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
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SAYURI HAYAKAWA, University of Chicago
Email:
SHAUL SHALVI, University of Amsterdam - Amsterdam School of Economics (ASE)
Email:
JOANNA COREY, Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Email:
ALBERT COSTA, Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Email:
BOAZ KEYSAR, University of Chicago
Email:

Theories of cheating behavior implicitly assume language independence. Here we investigated this assumption by comparing cheating by people using a foreign language vs. their native tongue. Participants rolled a die and were paid according to the outcome they reported. Because the outcome was private, they could cheat to inflate their profit without risk of repercussions. Participants performed the task either in their native language or in a foreign language. With native speakers of Hebrew, Korean, Spanish, and English we discovered that, on average, people inflate their earnings less when they use a foreign language. The outcome is predicted and explained by a dual system account that suggests that self-serving dishonesty is an automatic tendency, which is supported by a fast and intuitive system. Such an account predicts decreased cheating when using a foreign language as a foreign language is supported less by this intuitive, automatic system which gives rise to cheating. It might therefore engage more deliberation and reduce the temptation to cheat. These findings challenge theories of ethical behavior to account for the role of the language in shaping ethical behavior.

"Genetic and Environmental Factors in Skin Color Determination" Free Download

CALLIXTE YADUFASHIJE, Kampala University
Email:
REBERO SAMUEL, Kenyatta University, Students
Email:

The origin of skin color has been significantly a discussion of importance among human biology scientists, anthropologists and others interested in evolution of human skin color. Experience was done to chimpanzee and other primates shared almost the same characters with mankind, and this impressed scientists to know what makes difference in skin color among people. Different researches conducted to know the real cause of dark skin and light skin among people of the same origin. There are no other results found out of permanent variation happened to our ancestors based on geographical location. Environmental factors played a huge role in skin color determination. High UVR has been led to dark skin color and low production of UVR led to lightly skin. By natural selection genes responded to environmental conditions for a human to survive in his own environment. Melanin production came as a response to UVR to protect against consequence of UVR in low latitude regions. Depigmentation happened due migration from low latitude to high latitude regions and led lightly skinned color for our ancestors. Everyone has skin color due ancestry location recently.

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About this eJournal

Supported by: American Anthropological Association (AAA)

This eJournal distributes working and accepted paper abstracts of biological anthropology studies. The topics in this eJournal include: Paleoanthropology; Modern Human Evolution & Variation; Primatology; Human Ecology & Behavioral Ecology; Forensic Anthropology; Negative Results - Biological Anthropology.

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AARN SUBJECT MATTER EJOURNALS

LOUISE LAMPHERE
University of New Mexico - Department of Anthropology
Email: lamphere@unm.edu

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