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Table of Contents

Terrorism 4.0: A Structural Analysis

Adewunmi Falode, Lagos State University

Sexual Atrocities as a Tactic of Slow Genocide in Ethiopia: Death by a Thousand Secret Cuts

Habtamu Dugo, Westchester Community College
Joanne D. Eisen, Independence Institute

Models for a Global System for Free Access to Legal Information: The WorldLII Approach

Philip Chung, University of New South Wales (UNSW) - Faculty of Law
Graham Greenleaf, University of New South Wales, Faculty of Law
Andrew Mowbray, University of Technology Sydney, Faculty of Law

Should the Law Channel Parents into Coupledom?

Frederik Swennen, Faculty of Law - Research Group Personal Rights & Property Rights

Competition in Passenger Railway Service Sector in Romania and the European Union

Mihail Busu, Romanian Competition Council - Competition Inspector

Product Differentiation, Leniency Programs and Cartel Stability

Stefan Frübing, Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW)
Andreas Polk, Berlin School of Economics and Law

Impact of Facebook Usage on Macau's People Aged 45 and Above: Implications for Marketers, Social Workers and Policy Makers

Alan Yung, University of Saint Joseph, Macao

Demystifying Intelligence in UN Peace Operations: Toward an Organizational Doctrine

Olga Abilova, International Peace Institute
Alexandra Novosseloff, New York University (NYU) - Center on International Cooperation

The Surge to Stabilize: Lessons for the UN from the AU's Experience in Somalia

Walter Lotze, International Peace Institute
Paul D. Williams, George Washington University

The State of UN Peace Operations Reform: An Implementation Scorecard

Arthur Boutellis, International Peace Institute
Lesley Connolly, Independent

Truth and Evidence: The Role of Police Officer Body Cameras in Reforming Connecticut's Criminal Justice System

John Cigno, University of Connecticut - Connecticut Law Review

Road Behavior and Culture: A Statistical Review

Jerome Dumetz, Plekhanov Russian University of Economics


CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY eJOURNAL

"Terrorism 4.0: A Structural Analysis" Free Download

ADEWUNMI FALODE, Lagos State University
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The paper is an analysis of the different typology, forms and aspects of terrorism in its modern incarnation. It is a critical and thorough analysis of the varied manifestations of terrorism in the international political system. The paper shows that terrorism has evolved with modernity. Terrorism in its new variation is what this paper has called ‘Terrorism 4.0.’ Terrorism 4.0 (T4) has two basic and definable characteristics: it is fratricidal and genocidal in nature. The paper explores the different strategies and tactics employed by various and distinct terrorist groups to destabilize states in the international political system using T4 in combination with traditional terrorism practices. By drawing on the activities of non-state actors such as ISIS, Al-Qaeda, Tehrik-i-Taliban, Al-Shabaab, Boko Haram, Hamas and Hezbollah, the paper shows that terrorism has evolved beyond its traditional conceptions in the 20th century.

"Sexual Atrocities as a Tactic of Slow Genocide in Ethiopia: Death by a Thousand Secret Cuts" Free Download

HABTAMU DUGO, Westchester Community College
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JOANNE D. EISEN, Independence Institute
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This paper focuses on sexual atrocity as a tactic to reduce fertility in a population targeted for genocide.

"Models for a Global System for Free Access to Legal Information: The WorldLII Approach" Free Download
Chapter in Stephan Weth and Samuel van Oostrom, eds. Festschrift für Maximilian Herberger, juris GmbH, Saarbrücken 2016, p. 193ff.

PHILIP CHUNG, University of New South Wales (UNSW) - Faculty of Law
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GRAHAM GREENLEAF, University of New South Wales, Faculty of Law
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ANDREW MOWBRAY, University of Technology Sydney, Faculty of Law
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Since the development of the World Wide Web made possible the emergence of large scale free access to legal information via the Internet from the early 1990s onward and particularly since the formation of the Free Access to Law Movement (FALM) in 2002, it has been a goal of some free-access legal publishers to work toward the development of one or more systems providing free access to legal information of global or near-global scope.

This paper first discusses six models that such attempts can and have followed. It then focuses on one such attempt, the development since 2002 of the World Legal Information Institute (WorldLII) using what we call a free access hybrid distributed model. It involves the collaboration of at least ten legal information institutes (LIIs). By the end of 2015 WorldLII provided access to over 1800 databases. The paper analyses its components, and particularly how the LawCite citator is the 'glue' between them; and the standards on which WorldLII relies.

"Should the Law Channel Parents into Coupledom?" Free Download
Chapter Three, in a Civil Law Workshop 2016-2018 on Le Public en Droit Privé by the Paul-André Crépeau Centre for Private and Comparative Law (McGill University, Montréal, Canada), Forthcoming

FREDERIK SWENNEN, Faculty of Law - Research Group Personal Rights & Property Rights
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“The human infant needs a father and the human mother needs a mate?. Under this commonly accepted claim, it is considered as self-evident that the father of the child and the mate of the mother should be one and the same person. Completing the ‘Sexual Family’, he triangulates the fundamental bond between the child he begot and its mother, with whom he begot it as her mate.

The take-home message of this Chapter however is that a child’s parents need not be, or have been, engaged in coupledom with each other in order to have access to the right to found a family. Family law should be adapted more consistently to that principle.

The objective of this Chapter is not to elaborate that message in detail, due to length constraints. My objective merely is to add to already existing scholarly discussion, mainly by giving a detailed account of how the Sexual Family paradigm is still at play, thereby impeding the legal and societal recognition of alternative family performances.

In a first section, I will demonstrate why my message pertains to the public in family law by briefly elaborating on performances and on the channelling function of law. The second section is the principal part of this Chapter, in which I will take stock of current family law and of the impact of the ‘Sexual Family’ paradigm. In a third section, I will shortly address the foremost arguments legislatures refer to with a view of channelling a child’s parents towards coupledom with each other, concluding that those arguments do not justify such an account. I will dedicate the last section of this chapter to shortly pointing at directions in which legislatures could go with a view to supporting parenthood in the best interests of the child, linking up with similar lines of research. Throughout this Chapter, I will compare Quebec law with the Low Countries’ jurisdictions – The Netherlands, Belgium and France.

"Competition in Passenger Railway Service Sector in Romania and the European Union" Free Download
Romanian Competition Journal no. 1-2, 2016, ISSN 2343 - 9785

MIHAIL BUSU, Romanian Competition Council - Competition Inspector
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Rail passenger transport is seen as a strategic sector for each EU member state in terms of reduced costs, passengers’ safety and comfort generated by this type of transport. Liberalization and the open access on railway market represent a priority of the European Union. In the present paper, we intend to realize a radiography of the mentioned sector from a competition perspective as well as a comparative analysis between the EU average and Romania on the basis of performance indicators specific to the passenger rail services sector.

"Product Differentiation, Leniency Programs and Cartel Stability" Free Download
Berlin Institute for International Business Studies (BIIPS) Working Paper No. 3

STEFAN FRÜBING, Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW)
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ANDREAS POLK, Berlin School of Economics and Law
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Competition authorities usually consider the introduction of leniency programs as a success story. The increased incentives to report on fellow cartelists due to the introduction of leniency is likely to have contributed substantially to the clear increase in the number of detected cartels. Critics argue that leniency programs primarily target weaker cartels, whereas the most profitable cartels stay undetected and may even benefit from a shift in the authority’s resources from active cartel screening to the handling of allegedly less important leniency applications. We show that this perception cannot be upheld in a numerical Bertrand competition model with heterogeneous products. In our approach, more profitable cartels consisting of producers of closer substitutes tend to be less stable. Thus leniency programs do in fact threaten more harmful cartels.

"Impact of Facebook Usage on Macau's People Aged 45 and Above: Implications for Marketers, Social Workers and Policy Makers" Free Download
Jaipuria International Journal of Management Research January- June, 2016 Issue 01 Volume 02

ALAN YUNG, University of Saint Joseph, Macao
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Facebook kept growing since it was offered to college students in 2004 and became the number one online social network with one billion daily active users in September 2015. The daily one billion active users worldwide are sizeable enough to conclude that Facebook matters. Its heavy usage bridges the online and offline people connections, made Facebook a site for researchers interest. Researches were mainly conducted in western societies with college students and young adults. Not much research has been done on people aged 45 and above in Asia context. Aged 45 and above users were growing in a faster pace than the younger generation. Facebook has undeniably penetrated into different aspects of people’s life in Macau. This research is conducted in Macau and intended to "identify" and "describe" the Macau Facebook users life satisfaction, subjective happiness, and bonding and bridging social capital. The result generated from this research shall have implication and provide useful information for marketer on a wide span of marketing and product decisions on the segment of people age 45 and above. Results could also be employed for service planning and improvement by social workers and policy makers. This research shall be replicated for subjects in other countries and regions. This paper is part of an ongoing research on Facebook users aged 45 and above.

"Demystifying Intelligence in UN Peace Operations: Toward an Organizational Doctrine" Free Download
Olga Abilova and Alexandra Novosseloff, “Demystifying Intelligence in UN Peace Operations: Toward an Organizational Doctrine,? New York: International Peace Institute, July 2016.

OLGA ABILOVA, International Peace Institute
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ALEXANDRA NOVOSSELOFF, New York University (NYU) - Center on International Cooperation
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With UN peace operations involved in increasingly volatile and dangerous situations, there appears to be growing acceptance among member states that UN missions need greater capacity to generate intelligence, both to protect themselves and to fulfill their mandates more effectively.

This policy paper strives to unpack the concept of intelligence in UN peace operations by explaining its needs and requirements, existing structures, and limitations and to clearly define the concept of intelligence within the limits of the UN’s fundamental principles and its multilateral and transparent nature. It aims to clarify and demystify the debate on intelligence in UN peace operations and to propose a specific UN approach. In order to reform and strengthen its analytical capacities and capabilities in peace operations, this paper proposes that the UN:

- Develops a definition of intelligence different from the traditional military definition, which focuses on serving the national interest and operating against a clearly defined adversary — the primary aim of intelligence for a UN peace operation should be to contribute to a political solution in the long run;
- Implements an organizational framework that clearly defines the ethical and legal limitations of intelligence in UN peace operations — the UN cannot engage in covert or clandestine operations;
- Creates guidelines to frame a more structured process of information collection, analysis, and sharing, as well as effective and collective decision making;
- Establishes a comprehensive information-management system rather than new intelligence infrastructure, which most member states are likely to oppose for reasons of funding and politics;
- Applies a people-centered approach to intelligence by emphasizing human intelligence as a key capability that is at present underdeveloped;
- Creates a secure system for information sharing at all levels with clear and distinguishable levels of classification of different levels of access;
- Initiates and implements a culture of intelligence in the organization, to ensure that information and analysis is shared across silos with the objective of supporting decision makers; and
- Trains senior mission leadership on what intelligence assets are at its disposal and how to set intelligence priorities, request information, and provide feedback.

"The Surge to Stabilize: Lessons for the UN from the AU's Experience in Somalia" Free Download
Walter Lotze and Paul D. Williams, “The Surge to Stabilize: Lessons for the UN from the AU's Experience in Somalia? New York: International Peace Institute, May 2016.

WALTER LOTZE, International Peace Institute
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PAUL D. WILLIAMS, George Washington University
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In recent years, a growing number of UN peacekeepers have been mandated to carry out “stabilization? tasks. Yet the UN still has no explicit definition of or framework for this concept, and most recent stabilization operations, such as those in Afghanistan and Iraq, occurred under quite different circumstances from UN peacekeeping operations. The AU Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), which has long operated with the consent of a weak host government, in parallel with external and local forces, under a complex mandate, and with African personnel, may offer a more useful point of comparison.

The latest report by IPI investigates what lessons UN peacekeepers can draw from the AU’s experience in Somalia. AMISOM suffered from a number of political and operational challenges in its attempt to implement an effective stabilization strategy. It suffered from, inter alia, overly securitized responses, fragmented command and control, inadequate logistical support and force enablers, and a failure to significantly degrade al-Shabaab’s fighting ability or provide security to the local population.

On the basis of these challenges, the report offers nine lessons for UN peacekeepers with a mandate to stabilize:

- Missions must be appropriately configured to fulfill their mandate.
- The political and military elements of a stabilization strategy must be in sync.
- Extending state authority is not synonymous with peacebuilding, at least in the short term.
- Territorial expansion is less important than degrading the capabilities of spoilers.
- Strategic coordination among relevant partners is a crucial, mainly political task.
- Lack of coordination can have negative political and military effects.
- Effective stabilization requires positive relationships between peacekeepers and the local population.
- There can be no successful exit without building capable, legitimate, and inclusive national security forces.
- UN organizational frameworks and bureaucratic culture are not suited to supporting war-fighting operations.

"The State of UN Peace Operations Reform: An Implementation Scorecard" Free Download
Arthur Boutellis and Lesley Connolly, “The State of UN Peace Operations Reform: An Implementation Scorecard,? New York: International Peace Institute, November 2016.

ARTHUR BOUTELLIS, International Peace Institute
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LESLEY CONNOLLY, Independent
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There are currently more peacekeepers on the ground than ever before, and they increasingly operate in contexts where the UN is being asked to manage conflict rather than restore or keep peace. This has led many both within and outside of the UN to challenge and question the foundational assumptions and doctrines of UN peacekeeping and to ask whether peace operations are “fit for purpose.?

Against this backdrop, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed a High-Level Independent Panel on Peace Operations (HIPPO) in October 2014. The HIPPO released its report putting forward 166 recommendations in June 2015, followed three months later by a report from the secretary-general on the implementation of these recommendations. But one year later, no formal progress report has been produced.

This report, composed of a visual “scorecard? and accompanying narrative, aims to fill this gap. It presents a nuanced picture of progress to date by identifying where both the UN Secretariat and member states have taken the most concrete action across nine strategic areas. It then suggests how the next secretary-general and member states can take forward the HIPPO’s recommendations in each of these areas. Its recommendations include the following:

- The next secretary-general should make bold, “game-changing? proposals early in his term, particularly on restructuring the UN peace and security architecture, financing, and improved management of peace operations.
- The informal groups of friends of HIPPO, together with the broader UN membership, should carry forward the spirit of peace operations reform as a package.
- Member states should champion and build consensus around key HIPPO recommendations that the next secretary-general puts forward.
- Member states should pilot country-specific implementation of HIPPO recommendations, including the need for political solutions to guide the design and deployment of peace operations and for sequenced and prioritized mandates.
- The Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations (C-34) should continue discussing the HIPPO recommendations in its 2017 session.

"Truth and Evidence: The Role of Police Officer Body Cameras in Reforming Connecticut's Criminal Justice System" Free Download
49 Conn. L. Rev. 293 (2016)

JOHN CIGNO, University of Connecticut - Connecticut Law Review
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Unresolved animosity between the public and the police has given rise to an “Us vs. Them? mentality. This divisive mentality perpetuates itself as the public extrapolates anecdotal evidence of misconduct to justify condemnation of the law-enforcement community as a whole. In response, many within that community find themselves entrenched behind a “Blue Wall of Silence? in positions of collective self-defense, often to the detriment of their sworn duties. This animosity is a product of the public’s perception that police officers seem to be able to break the law with impunity. Although that perception is rooted in an incomplete understanding of qualified-immunity and excessive-force laws, it accurately reflects the de facto unfairness of the standards themselves. However, with the advent of modern body-camera technology it has become possible to effect criminal justice reform in a way that obviates legal anachronisms and thereby solves these problems at their source. Connecticut has taken important first steps towards this goal, but so far it has been unable to create lasting change. This Note advances three proposals that will allow Connecticut to bridge any remaining divide between its goals and its achievements, between its public and its police, and between truth and evidence.

"Road Behavior and Culture: A Statistical Review" 
Business Perspectives and Research July 2016 vol. 4 no. 2 111-117

JEROME DUMETZ, Plekhanov Russian University of Economics
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The article attempts to establish a correlation between socially relevant behavior (using driving behavior as an example) and cultural dimensions indicators. The statistical correlation method was used to test several hypothesis based on Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner’s model of cultural dimensions. Among the first results, it appears that display of emotions does not seem to be linked to road behavior; however, a clear correlation exists between road fatalities and the cultural acceptance of rules by the drivers. Service companies working in the automobile sphere, such as insurance companies, should take into account the cultural influence upon drivers’ behavior when calculating premiums.

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About this eJournal

Supported by: American Anthropological Association (AAA)

This eJournal distributes working and accepted paper abstracts of cultural anthropological studies. Please note that several cultural anthropology topics are indexed in separate eJournals, including applied and practicing anthropology, urban and transnational anthropology, medical anthropology, environmental anthropology, psychological anthropology, anthropology of agriculture and nutrition, anthropology of education, anthropology of religion, and culture area studies. The topics in this eJournal include: The History of Cultural Anthropology; Methods & Ethics in Cultural Anthropology; History & Ethnohistory; Race, Ethnicity, & Indigenous People; Visual Anthropology, Media Studies, & Performance; Economic Anthropology; Political Anthropology & Legal Anthropology; Kinship, Gender, the Body & Sexuality; Violence: War, Crime & Peace; Human Borders: Animals, Science & Technology, & Material Culture; Theory; Negative Results - Cultural Anthropology. Please note that several cultural anthropology topics are indexed in separate eJournals, including applied and practicing anthropology, urban and transnational anthropology, medical anthropology, environmental anthropology, psychological anthropology, anthropology of agriculture and nutrition, anthropology of education, anthropology of religion, political anthropology, legal anthropology and culture area studies.

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