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The SSRN developed the Anthropology & Archaeology Research Network with support from the American Anthropological Association (AAA). Founded in 1902, the AAA is the world's largest professional and scholarly society of anthropologists. AAA publishes 23 journals and a member magazine, supports professional development, and hosts several meetings and conferences each year to promote knowledge exchange and its use to solve human problems. Visit americananthro.org for additional information about the organization.


Table of Contents

Rwandan Refugee Rights in Uganda: Analysis of Law and Practice

Ahimbisibwe Frank, Institute of Development Policy and Management, University of Antwerp

The Human Rights of Non-Citizens: Constitutionalized Treaty Law in Ecuador

Stephen Meili, University of Minnesota Law School, University of Oxford - Border Criminologies

The Legitimacy of the European Human Rights Regime - A View from the United Kingdom

Tamas Gyorfi, School of Law, University of Aberdeen

Anticipating Expansion, Committing to Resistance: Removal in the Shadows of Immigration Court under Trump

Jennifer Lee Koh, Western State College of Law

Microfinance for Women: Are There Economical Reasons? Evidence from Latin America

Jamil Kehdi Pereira Civitarese, Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV), Brazilian School of Public and Business Administration (EBAPE), Students
R. Leite, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ)

Exploring Determinants of Primary School Completion in Sub-Saharan Africa

Pauline Wambua, Michigan State University


APPLIED & PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY eJOURNAL

"Rwandan Refugee Rights in Uganda: Analysis of Law and Practice" Free Download
US-China Law Review, Vol. 13, Issue 12, 2016, pp. 857-880, doi: 10.17265/1548-6605/2016.12.002

AHIMBISIBWE FRANK, Institute of Development Policy and Management, University of Antwerp
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Uganda is a host country to refugees from neighboring countries including Rwanda. According to UNHCR, by the end of 2015, Uganda was the 8th and 3rd top refugee hosting country in the world and Africa respectively. It hosted over 500,000 refugees. This number had increased to over 1 million by February 2017. Although Uganda has been praised world wide as being friendly to refugees, its policy and treatment of refugees and asylum seekers has been inconsistent with international obligations. There is a discrepancy between the rights refugees are entitled to under international and municipal law, and the ones they enjoy in practice. This article analyzes this discrepancy. It focuses on specific rights like non-discrimination, life, asylum, liberty and security of person and the principle of non-refoulement. The paper inquires into the factors behind Uganda’s violation of refugee rights.

"The Human Rights of Non-Citizens: Constitutionalized Treaty Law in Ecuador" Free Download
31 Georgetown Immigration Law Journal 347 (2017)

STEPHEN MEILI, University of Minnesota Law School, University of Oxford - Border Criminologies
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This article provides a nuanced empirical study of the circumstances under which constitutionalized human rights law increases the likelihood of positive rights outcomes for non-citizens. Several statistically-based quantitative studies suggest that when countries include human rights law in their constitutions, their overall human rights performance improves. However, there is little qualitative research about how those laws may improve rights practices in any given case, particularly in the context of non-citizens in developing countries. This article addresses that gap in the treaty effectiveness literature by analyzing how lawyers utilized human rights law in Ecuador’s 2008 Constitution to challenge a presidential decree limiting the rights of asylum-seekers, mostly refugees from Colombia’s armed conflict.

Ecuador is an ideal site for this analysis, given that it has the largest number of refugees in Latin America, a constitution containing more human rights than any other country in the world, and a small but active civil society. Drawing on interviews with domestic and transnational lawyers who litigated the case before Ecuador’s Constitutional Court, the article identifies several circumstances under which constitutionalized human rights laws can improve rights outcomes for non-citizens. These circumstances include the presence of domestic and transnational lawyers able to navigate the local legal and political landscape in order to maximize positive outcomes for their clients, the state’s global reputation for protecting non-citizens, the degree to which a constitutional challenge on behalf of non-citizens threatens key state actors, and whether the state has other means to accomplish its objectives, short of violating the rights of non-citizens.

"The Legitimacy of the European Human Rights Regime - A View from the United Kingdom" Free Download

TAMAS GYORFI, School of Law, University of Aberdeen
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The purpose of the present paper is threefold. First, my ambition is to improve on the analytical framework that is used to assess the legitimacy of the European Court of Human Rights. The Court’s authority can be neither established nor refuted by a single master-argument. Instead, what we need is a careful balancing exercise and this piece aims to set out the main elements of the justificatory equation. Second, using this framework, I intend to put forward the outline of a coherent critique of the European human rights regime. Third, I hope that my paper is able to shed light on why it is natural to expect more vocal criticism from the United Kingdom than from most other member states of the Council of Europe.

"Anticipating Expansion, Committing to Resistance: Removal in the Shadows of Immigration Court under Trump" Free Download
Ohio Northern University Law Review, Vol. 43, 2017

JENNIFER LEE KOH, Western State College of Law
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In the early months of the Trump Administration, the federal government has signaled its plans to exploit and expand what I have called the “shadows? of immigration court, referring to mechanisms used by the Department of Homeland Security to deport immigrants with little to no involvement from the immigration courts. As a result, the resource limitations of the immigration court system are unlikely to function as a meaningful practical check on the government’s ability to carry out its deportation goals. If so, how might the movement for immigrants’ rights be impacted? What shifts in strategy and resistance might become necessary?

This symposium essay discusses the early indications of the Trump Administration’s plans to rely more heavily on the shadows of immigration court, along with the watering down of procedural protection in immigration courts. It also considers the implications of such an expansion for immigrant communities and for advocacy in this area, with a focus on the potential for both legal and non-legal interventions. It concludes by calling on lawyers, organizers and allies to consider the explosion of shadow removals in resistance efforts.

"Microfinance for Women: Are There Economical Reasons? Evidence from Latin America" Free Download

JAMIL KEHDI PEREIRA CIVITARESE, Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV), Brazilian School of Public and Business Administration (EBAPE), Students
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R. LEITE, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ)
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In this paper, we use two samples of Latin American MFIs (41 MFIs from 2005-2014 and 102 MFIs from 2010-2014) to show that there is no relation between the percentage of female borrowers in an MFI portfolio and MFI economic outcomes. We verified the return on equity for companies focused on women tend to be smaller. Whilst the cost per borrower is smaller, this is not related to the loan portfolio size. When focusing on the portfolio-at-risk and gender the relation is not found when using a dynamic panel to account for serial autocorrelation, not accepting the hypothesis that women repay better than men. Thus, this paper suggests that MFIs lend more towards women for reasons that are beyond just “economical,? such as empowering women and help poor people, otherwise unable to access credit lines, get loans.

"Exploring Determinants of Primary School Completion in Sub-Saharan Africa" 
ASA 2017 Annual Meeting Paper

PAULINE WAMBUA, Michigan State University
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Many countries around the world did not achieve the Universal Primary Education (UPE) by 2015. The same target is now part of Sustainable Development Goals and commits to ensure all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education by 2030. Although Sub-Saharan Africa as a whole lagged behind some countries have achieved the target by 2015. Using secondary data, I assessed why some countries achieved universal completion rates compared to others by focusing on 5 factors: GDP per capita, expenditure in education, pupil-teacher ratio, democracy, and level of conflicts. The analysis indicates that pupil-teacher ratio explains most of the variation in primary school completion rates among Sub-Saharan African countries, followed by level of conflicts. GDP per capita, expenditure on education, and democracy individually explain the variations but they do not have a statistically significant effect after controlling for the other variables. The high pupil-teacher ratio in Sub-Saharan African could be attributed to the fact that most countries only implemented policies that removed barriers of access to primary schooling with less emphasis on retention. Due to missing data I limited the analysis to 2013 primary school completion rates.

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About this eJournal

Supported by: American Anthropological Association (AAA)

This eJournal distributes working and accepted paper abstracts of applied and practicing anthropology studies, including studies that use anthropological theories and methods to address current problems, such as development, social justice and human rights, studies that are aimed at educating non-anthropologists and studies of anthropologists applying their knowledge in professional fields. The topics in this eJournal include: Theory & Method in Applied Anthropology; Topics of Concern in Applied Anthropology; Public & Practicing Anthropology; Negative Results - Applied & Practicing Anthropology.

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AARN SUBJECT MATTER EJOURNALS

LOUISE LAMPHERE
University of New Mexico - Department of Anthropology
Email: lamphere@unm.edu

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