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The SSRN developed the Anthropology & Archaeology Research Network with support from the American Anthropological Association (AAA). Founded in 1902, the AAA is the world's largest professional and scholarly society of anthropologists. AAA publishes 23 journals and a member magazine, supports professional development, and hosts several meetings and conferences each year to promote knowledge exchange and its use to solve human problems. Visit americananthro.org for additional information about the organization.


Table of Contents

'I Simply Do Not Believe': A Case Study of Credibility Determinations in Canadian Refugee Adjudication

Sean Rehaag, York University - Osgoode Hall Law School

Exploring the Influence of Colonial Railways on Java’s Economic Geography

Aloysius Gunadi Brata, Atma Jaya University Yogyakarta, Independent

Did the US Just Abandon Tibet?

Pradeep Nair, Central University of Himachal Pradesh
Sandeep Sharma, Central University of Himachal Pradesh

Global Population Ageing, the Sixth Kondratieff Wave, and the Global Financial System

Leonid Grinin, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Eurasian Center for Big History & System Forecasting, Volgograd Center for Social Research
Andrey Korotayev, Russian State University for the Humanities

The League of Arab States & the Need for Transformative Change

Hassan H. Elkatawneh, Walden University, University of the Rockies

The Suez Canal Crisis - 1956

Alexandra Hofer, Ghent University-Universiteit Gent - Department of International Public Law, Students

‘Greed’ or ‘Ethics’: How Difficult is it to Set the Priority in International Trade?

Animesh Das, National Law University, Delhi

Quasi-Judicial Dialogue for the Coherent Development of International Law

Makane Moïse Mbengue, University of Geneva
Stéphanie de Moerloose, University of Geneva - Faculty of Law, Universidad Austral


URBAN & TRANSNATIONAL ANTHROPOLOGY eJOURNAL

"'I Simply Do Not Believe': A Case Study of Credibility Determinations in Canadian Refugee Adjudication" Free Download
38 Windsor Review of Legal and Social Issues 28

SEAN REHAAG, York University - Osgoode Hall Law School
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This article examines credibility determinations in Canadian refugee adjudication through a case study of decision-making by a refugee adjudicator who denied every single refugee claim he heard over a three-year period. The case study uses both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, drawing on data and documents obtained from the Immigration and Refugee Board through Access to Information Requests. The quantitative part of the study finds that the decision-maker was much more likely than his colleagues to deny claims from similar countries, and that the most likely reason for this is because he applies different tests and standards than other adjudicators. The qualitative part of the study finds that the decision-maker regularly denied claims on the basis of credibility. Essentially, the decision-maker simply did not believe refugee claimants. The article considers various implications of the case study, including implications for courts that are asked to overturn refugee decisions based on reasonable apprehension of bias, implications for legislators and policy makers in terms of how adjudicative institutions should be designed to minimize the “luck of the draw?, and implications for adjudicators seeking to improve their own decision-making.

In addition to being of interest to refugee lawyers, judges, refugee adjudicators and policy makers, the article will also be interesting for scholars from various disciplinary standpoints. This includes immigration and refugee law scholars, administrative law scholars, legal process scholars, and others interested in bias and consistency in adjudication. The research also contributes to a growing body of empirical legal research on refugee adjudication around the world and will thus attract readers outside of Canada.

"Exploring the Influence of Colonial Railways on Java’s Economic Geography" Free Download

ALOYSIUS GUNADI BRATA, Atma Jaya University Yogyakarta, Independent
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This study explores the impact on Java’s economic geography of railways built by the Dutch colonial government. Pre-1940 Dutch railway construction affords an historical experiment on the spatial distribution of economic activities across urban Java both before and after 1940.Using city data for over 100 years, the study finds that the railways had a short-term impact on the distribution of population, but that in the long run colonial railway investment lost its advantages. Until 1930, the railways substituted for the Great Mail Road. Between 1930 and 2010, however, the Great Mail Road regained an earlier importance in shaping urban Javanese patterns. The study also draws important lessons for recent Indonesian infrastructure development in Indonesia, notably in regard to the railway system itself.

"Did the US Just Abandon Tibet?" Free Download

PRADEEP NAIR, Central University of Himachal Pradesh
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SANDEEP SHARMA, Central University of Himachal Pradesh

Reversing its stand on Tibet policy and giving a huge jolt to the Tibetan aspirations, the Trump administration recently took a step away from precedent by proposing zero aid to the Tibetans in 2018. This move points to both the changing internal politics of the United States, especially after Trump’s election, and also the new geopolitics and emerging world order, which is overshadowed by the People’s Republic of China.

"Global Population Ageing, the Sixth Kondratieff Wave, and the Global Financial System" Free Download
Journal of Globalization Studies, Vol. 7, Num. 2, pp. 11-31

LEONID GRININ, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Eurasian Center for Big History & System Forecasting, Volgograd Center for Social Research
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ANDREY KOROTAYEV, Russian State University for the Humanities

Concerns about population ageing apply to both developed and many developing countries and it has turned into a global issue. In the forthcoming decades the population ageing is likely to become one of the most important processes determining the future society characteristics and the direction of technological development. The present paper analyzes some aspects of the population ageing and its important consequences for particular societies and the whole world. Basing on this analysis, we can draw a conclusion that the future technological breakthrough is likely to take place in the 2030s (which we define as the final phase of the Cybernetic Revolution). In the 2020s – 2030s we will expect the upswing of the forthcoming sixth Kondratieff wave, which will introduce the sixth technological paradigm (system). All those revolutionary technological changes will be connected, first of all, with breakthroughs in medicine and related technologies. We also present our ideas about the financial instruments that can help to solve the problem of pension provision for an increasing elderly population in the developed countries. We think that a more purposeful use of pension funds' assets together with an allocation (with necessary guarantees) of the latter into education and upgrading skills of young people in developing countries, perhaps, can partially solve the indicated problem in the developed states.

"The League of Arab States & the Need for Transformative Change" Free Download

HASSAN H. ELKATAWNEH, Walden University, University of the Rockies
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The Arab League faced several challenges, which can be categorized into three basic groups, including legal challenges, organizational challenges, and political challenges. The Arab League failed to make any transformative changes, which would activate the role of the Arab League in keeping with the huge regional and global changes and challenges. The previous studies also showed the need to reform the Secretariat in different aspects, such as financial aspects, administrative aspects, and organizational aspects, in order to reform, and improve the performance of workers, and keep abreast of changes in the regional and international arenas. The study suggested that some transformational changes were necessary to ensure the realization of the Organization's vision, which included the role of the leader in imposing transformational changes, and reaching to the individual adoption to the organization's vision. The study suggested adapting the production-based management as a measure of the organization's success by raising the level of individual adoption of the organization's vision. The study presented the elements of alignment between the proposed strategy and the objectives of the organization.

"The Suez Canal Crisis - 1956" Free Download
Forthcoming, T. Ruys and O. Corten (eds.) The Use of Force in International Law: a case-based approach (Oxford: Oxford University Press)

ALEXANDRA HOFER, Ghent University-Universiteit Gent - Department of International Public Law, Students
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This chapter discusses the Suez Canal Crisis in 1956, which was triggered by Egypt’s decision to nationalize the Suez Canal and remove it from Franco-British control. Following the failure to reach a diplomatic solution to the crisis, the French and British governments colluded with Israel in an unlawful attempt to regain control of the canal by force. If the intervention initially undermined the United Nations, the forceful reaction of UN Member States affirmed the importance of the UN Organization and its principles.

"‘Greed’ or ‘Ethics’: How Difficult is it to Set the Priority in International Trade?" 

ANIMESH DAS, National Law University, Delhi
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The impact of trade on environment, climate, human right and other social factors is of the size Mt. Everest. The argument that trade always foster economy has been much debatable for decades. Various instances where a country has lost not only with respect to its social and human resources but also resultant environment and climate degradation, are ample. History has repeated itself in the form of Shell disaster case reaffirmed in the form of Bhopal Gas Disaster and confirmed in the form of Texaco-Chevron case, has left little room to understand the wide impact of cross-border trade. The governments have often compromised the related impacts with the expectations of leveraging the national economy but the results have been no less than genocides. The world has so far made much effort in the form of Kyoto Protocol, Montreal Protocol, Rotterdam Convention, etc. but this globalized trading world is yet to acknowledge the grave resultant bang. Therefore, the paper hypotheses that the discussion on the role of ethics and the impact on environment and climate has had been much lowered with respect to international and cross border trade in the globalised world.

The paper will thus discuss the ethical intricacies those are often overlooked while concentrating on the flow of money.

"Quasi-Judicial Dialogue for the Coherent Development of International Law" 
EJIL : Talk! Blog of the European Journal of International Law (9.11.2016)

MAKANE MO?SE MBENGUE, University of Geneva
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STÉPHANIE DE MOERLOOSE, University of Geneva - Faculty of Law, Universidad Austral
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Multilateral Development Banks have established international accountability mechanisms over the last 25 years in order to offer private individuals or groups a process through which they can demand the redress of grievances caused by the banks’ projects. Accountability mechanisms are often composed of experts appointed by each bank’s Board of Directors. The mechanisms generally have a compliance review function, with or without a problem-solving function. With their different mandates, these quasi-judicial bodies have, just like judicial bodies, proliferated in a process that can be deemed “quasi anarchic“. This post explores a recent project in Kenya presented simultaneously before two accountability mechanisms, and argues that accountability mechanisms’ “quasi-judicial dialogue? can constitute a source of inspiration for the coherent development of international law.

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Supported by: American Anthropological Association (AAA)

This eJournal distributes working and accepted paper abstracts of urban and transnational anthropology, including studies of urban areas and relationships between national, international, transnational and global spheres. The topics in this eJournal include: Urban Studies; Local, National & International Milieus; Migration; Globalization & Transnationalism; Negative Results - Urban & Transnational Anthropology.

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