The SSRN developed the Anthropology & Archaeology Research Network with support from the American Anthropological Association (AAA). Founded in 1902, the AAA is the world's largest professional and scholarly society of anthropologists. AAA publishes 23 journals and a member magazine, supports professional development, and hosts several meetings and conferences each year to promote knowledge exchange and its use to solve human problems. Visit for additional information about the organization.

Table of Contents

Mass Tourism in Bulgaria: The Force Awakens

Stanislav Hristov Ivanov, Varna University of Management (VUM), Zangador

A General Legislative Analysis of 'Torture' As a Human Rights Violation in Zimbabwe

Howard Chitimira, North-West University
Pontsho Mokone, North-West University

Using the Law to Combat Public Procurement Corruption in South Africa: Lessons from Hong Kong

Prenisha Sewpersadh, University of KwaZulu-Natal - Faculty of Law (Westville Campus)
John Cantius Mubangizi, University of KwaZulu-Natal

Prosecuting the Offence of Misappropriation of Public Funds: An Insight into Cameroon's Special Criminal Court

Avitus A Agbor, North-West University

Millennial Voters’ Preference for the 2016 Philippine Presidential Elections: A Simulation Using Conjoint Analysis

John Vianne Murcia, University of Mindanao
Ritz Larren T. Bolo, University of Mindanao - Digos

Controversies Over the European Value Added Created by CAP

Aleksander Gorzelak, National Research Institute - Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics - National Research Institute (IAFE-NRI)
Justyna Herda-Kopańska, National Research Institute - Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics - National Research Institute (IAFE-NRI)
Jacek Kulawik, National Research Institute - Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics - National Research Institute (IAFE-NRI)
Michał Soliwoda, National Research Institute - Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics - National Research Institute (IAFE-NRI)
Barbara Wieliczko, National Research Institute - Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics - National Research Institute (IAFE-NRI)

Trump, Trust and the Future of the Constitutional Order

Stephen M. Griffin, Tulane University Law School

Political Islam in the Central Asian Context: After 25 Years of Independence

Galym Zhussipbek, Independent

Communist/Socialist Regimes As Ethnic-Conflict-Prevention Institutions: What Do We Have to Keep in Mind the Most When We Consider East and Southeast Asian Security?

Shigetaro Wakabayashi, Independent

Lessons from Demonetisation

Suhayl Abidi, Independent
Manoj Joshi, Amity University, Lucknow Campus - Amity Business School

Challenges Associated with Anti-Epilepsy Medication and Use of Complementary or Alternative Medicines Among People with Epilepsy in Rural Communities of Zimbabwe

Ngonidzashe Mutanana, Independent

Leveraging Renewable Energy to Make India Sustainable Through Solid Biofuels

Niharika Mishra, Independent


"Mass Tourism in Bulgaria: The Force Awakens" Free Download
In David Harrison and Richard Sharpley (Eds). Mass tourism in a small world. Wallingford: CABI, (pp. 168-180)

STANISLAV HRISTOV IVANOV, Varna University of Management (VUM), Zangador

Usually mass tourism is associated with predominantly negative impacts. This book chapter adopts a more positive stance on mass tourism and elaborates on its economic, social and environmental benefits within the context of Bulgaria.

"A General Legislative Analysis of 'Torture' As a Human Rights Violation in Zimbabwe" Free Download
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal, Vol. 20, 2017

HOWARD CHITIMIRA, North-West University
PONTSHO MOKONE, North-West University

Several challenges involving torture-related human rights violations have been reported in Zimbabwe from the late 1970s to date. Notably, these torture-related human rights violations were problematic during the liberation war era in Zimbabwe. Regrettably, such violations are allegedly still prevalent, especially prior to and/or during general political elections in Zimbabwe. Accordingly, this article investigates torture as a human rights violation in Zimbabwe, inter alia by focusing on the role of selected law enforcement agencies in the protection of human rights in Zimbabwe. The article also discusses the legal position on torture and the perpetration of torture against ordinary people prior to as well as after independence in Zimbabwe. This is done to investigate the adequacy of the legal framework in Zimbabwe with regard to the combatting of torture. In relation to this, selected regional and international legal frameworks against torture are briefly discussed in order to determine possible measures that could be utilised in Zimbabwe. The authors submit that although the Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No 20) Act, 2013 (Zimbabwe Constitution, 2013) prohibits torture, more may still need to be done to enhance the combatting of torture in Zimbabwe. For instance, apart from the prohibition contained in the Zimbabwe Constitution, 2013, there is no legislation that expressly outlaws torture in Zimbabwe. Moreover, Zimbabwe has not ratified the United Nations (UN) Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment of 1984 (UN Convention against Torture) to date. Lastly, concluding remarks and possible recommendations that could be employed to discourage torture-related human rights abuses in Zimbabwe are provided.

"Using the Law to Combat Public Procurement Corruption in South Africa: Lessons from Hong Kong" Free Download
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal, Vol. 20, 2017

PRENISHA SEWPERSADH, University of KwaZulu-Natal - Faculty of Law (Westville Campus)
JOHN CANTIUS MUBANGIZI, University of KwaZulu-Natal

Since South Africa’s political transition in 1994, corruption has been a major feature of the country’s politics. However, the complexity of post-apartheid South African politics has sometimes prevented allegations and suspicions of corruption from being adequately dealt with by the law. This article examines the legal framework used to combat public procurement corruption in South Africa. Using a comparative approach, the article also examines the legal framework of Hong Kong – with a view to identifying lessons that South Africa can learn therefrom. Such lessons include but are not limited to Hong Kong’s specific laws dedicated to public procurement, its particular legislative and institutional features, its commendable constitutional commitment to eradicating corruption, and the fact that Hong Kong’s rules pertaining to procurement processes are more consistent and are not hidden in several legislative prescripts. South Africa may also do well to learn from the successes of Hong Kong’s iconic anti-corruption agency, the Independent Commission against Corruption (ICAC) – in attempting to model its own anti-corruption agency.

"Prosecuting the Offence of Misappropriation of Public Funds: An Insight into Cameroon's Special Criminal Court" Free Download
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal, Vol. 20, 2017

AVITUS A AGBOR, North-West University

The fight against the misappropriation of public funds perpetrated by individuals, especially public servants, for private gain, enjoys different degrees of commitment by different countries. The enactment of laws and establishment of institutional mechanisms towards this end are partly a reflection of the attainment of such a mission and can also be the measure by which such a commitment can be assessed. Rated as one of the most corrupt countries in Africa by Transparency International, the global anti-corruption watchdog, the Republic of Cameroon recently enacted a law that created a Special Criminal Court. This comes as one of the most robust and significant legislative developments in the fight against the misappropriation of public funds. The mandate of the Special Criminal Court is to bring to justice persons who "cause loss of at least 50.000.000 CFA Francs (equivalent to about USD 100.000) relating to misappropriation of public funds and other related offences provided for in the Cameroon Penal Code and International Conventions ratified by Cameroon". This paper examines the offence of the misappropriation of public funds. It looks at aspects of the Special Criminal Court as provided by the Law that established it as well as supplementary legislation enacted to address specific issues related to the Special Criminal Court. The paper also examines the offence for which individuals are prosecuted in the Special Criminal Court. As a bold step in fighting and defeating the "invisible enemy amongst us" (that is, corruption), this paper argues that an institutional mechanism like the Special Criminal Court that has docked several top-notch politicians and former cabinet members for trial, is an example to emulate and confirms that corruption can be fought if and only if the political will to do so is present.

"Millennial Voters’ Preference for the 2016 Philippine Presidential Elections: A Simulation Using Conjoint Analysis" Free Download

JOHN VIANNE MURCIA, University of Mindanao
RITZ LARREN T. BOLO, University of Mindanao - Digos

The purpose of the study was to determine the most ideal 2016 Philippine presidential candidate based from preferences of millennial voters. The use of conjoint analysis warrants this intention by providing overall and individual utility models of preference. A total of n=900 millennial voters participated in the study. It was found out that political experience of the presidential candidate is the most important attribute, while occupation/profession is the least important. Overall, the millennial voters prefer a Philippine president who is an economist, with experience as elected official, liberal-thinker, prioritizes economic growth, and holds a doctoral degree. Individual preferences of voters were also discussed.

"Controversies Over the European Value Added Created by CAP" Free Download
Problems of Agricultural Economics, 1(350) 2017, 3-28

ALEKSANDER GORZELAK, National Research Institute - Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics - National Research Institute (IAFE-NRI)
JUSTYNA HERDA-KOPAŃSKA, National Research Institute - Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics - National Research Institute (IAFE-NRI)
JACEK KULAWIK, National Research Institute - Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics - National Research Institute (IAFE-NRI)
MICHA? SOLIWODA, National Research Institute - Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics - National Research Institute (IAFE-NRI)
BARBARA WIELICZKO, National Research Institute - Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics - National Research Institute (IAFE-NRI)

From the beginning of the financial crisis – 2008/2009 – the EU entered an unprecedented period of very serious shocks. These problems first affected the economy (weak and highly variable growth with times of rather shallow recession, high unemployment, especially among young people) and then they spread to the bank sector and the national budgets. Consequently, several of the old EU countries, belonging to the euro area, became – in fact – insolvent. To make the matters worse, southern Europe was hit by a huge wave of immigration, Russians took over the Crimea, a war erupted in Donbas and Donald Trump, who can considerably weaken the NATO, won the US presidential elections. The subsequent attempts at solving these mini-crises were often delayed, not very daring and erratic. Thus, it comes as no surprise that the crisis, ultimately, started to affect also the sociopolitical and institutional areas, which is manifested in growing distrust of the Europeans in the Community institutions and liberal democracy. This, in turn, resulted in widespread populism, national and regional egoism and disintegration tendencies. Brexit is one of the first effects of the process along with the concerns that other members of the EU may take similar decisions which would be tantamount to its breakup. In these circumstances, convincing validation of further existence and development of the Community requires great intellectual, political and organisational effort, and then finding effective channels to reach as broad as possible circle of responsible citizens with the proposals, recommendations and ready application solutions to help them regain trust in the meaning of the European project and possibilities of functioning in the double national and European identity. It would be perfect to make the mended EU more democratic, i.e. to actively engage in the process the very Europeans and not only techno- and Eurocrats. One of the more interesting concepts, at the moment, seems to be the European added value, which – in a nutshell, means a sum of extra benefits obtained on account of integration against the effects resulting from the national socio-economic policy. It is possible to describe this value and, to some extent, even to quantify it for all areas of the European integration. However, the paper is restricted only to the CAP, focusing on methodological, environmental and climate, innovation and investment issues, and a set of key budget problems.

"Trump, Trust and the Future of the Constitutional Order" Free Download
77 Maryland Law Review __ (2017)
Tulane Public Law Research Paper No. 17-8

STEPHEN M. GRIFFIN, Tulane University Law School

In this short essay I assess the meaning of Trump’s election for the future of our constitutional order. The efficacy and, perhaps, stability of our constitutional order are in question and we should try to understand why. In particular, I argue that we should consider the possibility that Trump’s success is the product of longstanding trends that show the Constitution to be more crisis-prone than many would like to admit. These crises are internal to the constitutional order, based in the reality that it has long placed political elites in the position of informally adapting an obdurate Constitution to the changing responsibilities placed on the national state.

Given this perspective, I provide three takes on Trump and the future of the constitutional order. Part I argues that Trump’s victory was enabled by the long-term decline in political trust. It is important to understand that no matter whether President Trump succeeds or fails, the problems of trust and dysfunctional government will remain front and central.

Part II contends that the challenge Trump presents cannot be remedied by returning to the verities of the Constitution because the Constitution is part of the problem. I critique the view that the Constitution’s checks and balances will be sufficient to steer the Trump administration within safe boundaries. Instead we should face the music and acknowledge that the dysfunctional operation of the contemporary constitutional order made Trump’s rise possible in the first place. The reality is that our governing order, weakened by a systemic loss of trust, is increasingly unable to reproduce those conditions that contribute to its maintenance and success.

In Part III, I briefly discuss to what extent the Trump presidency is consistent with political regime theory, particularly the highly influential theory of “political time? put forward by Stephen Skowronek. Skowronek’s theory depends on the recurrence of “reconstructive? presidencies that open up new possibilities for the national agenda. I argue that the dysfunction at the heart of our constitutional order has made those sorts of presidencies difficult, if not impossible. The last three presidencies of Bush, Obama, and now Trump suggest strongly that this dysfunction that must be addressed before American politics and policy can move forward.

"Political Islam in the Central Asian Context: After 25 Years of Independence" Free Download
Central Asia at 25: Looking Back, Moving Forward - A Collection of Essays from Central Asia, Marlene Laruelle Aitolkyn Kourmanova, ed., Central Asia Program, Institute for European, Russian and Eurasian Studies Elliott School of International Affairs, The George Washington University, May 2017


An overstatement of, and preoccupation with, the role of an inherently marginal political Islam in a post-Soviet context is an oversimplification, if not a misperception, of the reasons for the emergence and rise of religious radicalism and political violence in Central Asia. Moreover, security-obsessed and alarmist scenarios, with an apparent emphasis on the threats of radical political Islam, may serve to legitimize the securitization of religious awakening, the diversification of social life, and the adoption of repressive policies in post-Soviet realities. By and large, the Islamic revival in Central Asia seems to have been misleadingly framed as inherently radical. Radical political Islam is marginal and geographically limited in the region.

"Communist/Socialist Regimes As Ethnic-Conflict-Prevention Institutions: What Do We Have to Keep in Mind the Most When We Consider East and Southeast Asian Security?" Free Download


In reality, what are communist/socialist regimes? Viewed from modern European history, they are in essence ethnic-conflict-prevention institutions to be established where ethnic relations are too complicated: and the Chinese communist regime is no exception. Although they may appear either regimes of Marxists or totalitarians (or both) to be established where the disparity in wealth is too large, those are rather of their inessential attributes. Further, we must know that as long as we naively regard such inessential attributes as essential, our strategy for East and Southeast Asian security will fatally err; for we will fail to see that the biggest threat to East and Southeast Asian security is the collapse of the Chinese communist regime. Namely, if it collapsed, it should be followed by a replay of the Balkan tragedies that started immediately after the demise of the Soviet bloc in the early 1990s. To make matters worse, the Chinese replay should be far more disastrous than the original Balkan tragedies, for there is no such institution as the EU in East and Southeast Asia. Unfortunately, the total breakdown of the Chinese communist regime and the subsequent Balkanization of China are no longer an unreal nightmare: they have been getting more and more probable because the paradigm of society in China has steadily been changing since the mid 1990s. Moreover, we must know that the current North Korean problem is in truth one to be understood in precisely the same context. The overall security of East and Southeast Asia entirely depends upon whether or not the Chinese Communist Party can fully reverse the ongoing dangerous change in the paradigm of society in China.

"Lessons from Demonetisation" 

SUHAYL ABIDI, Independent
MANOJ JOSHI, Amity University, Lucknow Campus - Amity Business School

Demonetisation has caused disruption in the lives of a majority of the citizens, corporates and institutions of India. This has led to unimaginable suffering to the most vulnerable of the society such as labour in the unorganized sector, small farmers and small & medium industries which employ millions of people. For past 65 years, policies have been drafted by well-fed, urban leaders and bureaucrats who have not seen much hardship, while a majority of Indians still have difficulty in putting two meals together. Thus, they cannot visualise the consequences of their actions. It is a fault line, which has never been course corrected since independence. This dichotomy in the society has been a major reason of economic disequilibrium, unresolved till date. To most people in the middle class, demonetisation was at worst, an inconvenience but to the poor daily wage earner, it is a borderline between life and death. We may truly never know the effect of long-term consequences of demonetisation on these most vulnerable such as reduced availability of food for small children, especially when the rural poor's safety net MNREGA has been drastically pruned, a double whammy.

"Challenges Associated with Anti-Epilepsy Medication and Use of Complementary or Alternative Medicines Among People with Epilepsy in Rural Communities of Zimbabwe" 
Malaysian Journal of Medical and Biological Research [Volume 4, No 2/2017]


The main objective of this study was to analyze challenges associated with anti-epilepsy medication and use of complementary or alternative medicines among people with epilepsy in rural communities of Zimbabwe. The study opted for qualitative research because it is culturally specific and data collected is contextually rich. The target population was people with epilepsy and caregivers of children with epilepsy and using a snowball sampling technique, a sample of 15 people with epilepsy and 5 caregivers of children with epilepsy was selected. The study purposively selected 2 traditional healers, 2 faith healers and 2 psychiatric nurses to have their insight on complementary and alternative medicines in the community and data was collected using face-to-face in-depth interviews. Findings revealed that anti-epilepsy medication is associated with a number of challenges in rural communities, chief among them that people with epilepsy are not informed about the side-effects of anti-epilepsy medication such as stomach upset, dizziness, blurred vision and sexual dysfunction. As a plateau to these anti-epilepsy medication side-effects, they make use of traditional and spiritual medicines either as complementary or alternative to anti-epilepsy medication. They are also facing challenges of Anti-Epilepsy Drugs shortages and long distances to health facilities and consequently, they opt for complementary or alternative medicines to sustain their livelihoods. The study recommends modern healthcare providers to supply people with epilepsy with adequate information on the side-effects of drugs. Healthcare providers must have enough information on complementary and alternative medicines. Traditional and faith healers must be accommodated in epilepsy treatment because of sociocultural aspects, and they too must be educated on the relevance of the modern healthcare system in epilepsy treatment. The study finally recommends a study on the multi-cultural approach of epilepsy management in Zimbabwe.

"Leveraging Renewable Energy to Make India Sustainable Through Solid Biofuels" 


India is at the global center stage ever since it has embarked on the journey of a profound socio-economic transformation. Propelled by world’s largest and most vibrant democracy and home to over one-sixth of the world’s population, India is already in the top league being the third-largest economy. India’s industrialization and modernization has gathered significant momentum through conducive policies and recent campaigns like “Make in India? which envisage India as a manufacturing hub. Whilst there are many challenges for achieving envisaged success of “Make in India? campaign, how to sustainably fuel the manufacturing remains a major question. Manufacturing-based growth requires at least 10-fold more energy per unit of value added when compared with growth led by the services sector. For realizing the milestones envisaged for “Make in India?, the additional demands on energy arise primarily from industry. This additional energy shall be required by not only energy-intensive sectors but also from other industries that are targeted by the “Make in India? campaign such as textiles, food processing, industrial equipment and machinery. Besides consequential incremental energy demands from road freight, residential consumption and for a more mechanized and productive agricultural sector also rise.

Whilst there has been a consistent increase in global renewable fuels by industrial consumers, the focus has been more on Solar and Wind and other unconventional sources which require significant investment. Amidst renewable energy resources, Biomass based Solid Biofuels offer a vast potential for feeding the fuel requirements of a variety of Industrial Boilers. Besides being fully eco-friendly, Biomass based Solid Biofuels can be easily manufactured. Rich availability of biomass from mainly agrarian economy of India fetches a good opportunity to produce green fuel with low investment and economic advantage.

The paper discusses the potential of using Biomass Based Solid Biofuels like Briquettes and Pellets as sustainable and alternate fuel for industrial usage and related issues.


About this eJournal

Supported by: American Anthropological Association (AAA)

This eJournal distributes working and accepted paper abstracts of studies of specific culture areas. The topics in this eJournal include: Africa; North America; Europe; Middle East; Latin America & South America; Asia & Central Asia; East Asia; South Asia; South East Asia, Oceania, & the Pacific Region; Negative Results - Culture Area Studies.


To submit your research to SSRN, sign in to the SSRN User HeadQuarters, click the My Papers link on left menu and then the Start New Submission button at top of page.

Distribution Services

If your organization is interested in increasing readership for its research by starting a Research Paper Series, or sponsoring a Subject Matter eJournal, please email:

Distributed by

Anthropology & Archaeology Research Network (AARN), a division of Social Science Electronic Publishing (SSEP) and Social Science Research Network (SSRN)



University of New Mexico - Department of Anthropology

Please contact us at the above addresses with your comments, questions or suggestions for AARN-Sub.