FOOD LAW & POLICY eJOURNAL
"Handbook for SDG-Aligned Food Companies: Four Pillar Framework Standards"
Mardirossian, N. et al., 2021. “Handbook for SDG-Aligned Food Companies: Four Pillar Framework Standards”, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment and UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network.
NORA MARDIROSSIAN, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment
GAËLLE ESPINOSA, UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network (UN SDSN)
RICO RINCÓN, Columbia University - Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment
DIANA MARCELA, Columbia University - Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment
ABRANIA MARRERO, Columbia University - Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment
ERIN O’DWYER, Columbia University - Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment
REGAN PLEKENPOL, Columbia University - Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment
URVI AGARWAL, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment
LISA SACHS, Columbia University - Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment
JEFFREY D. SACHS, Columbia University - Columbia Earth Institute, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
The world food system is in crisis. Outright hunger, unhealthy diets and malnutrition occur parallel to food losses and waste. Farming families in poor countries suffer from extreme poverty. And food production is environmentally unsustainable and increasingly vulnerable to extreme weather events caused by climate change. A historic change of direction is needed to bring about a new era of food system sustainability. Our work aims to help companies, investors and other stakeholders move towards a more sustainable food system that is aligned with the Sustainable Development Goals.
Transforming the world food system to achieve sustainability in all its dimensions is a major challenge. Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals will require managing major changes to the global food system responsibly, involving hundreds of millions of farmers and their families, global supply chains, thousands of food producing companies, diverse food production systems and local ecologies, food processing and a great diversity of food traditions and cultures.
Food companies are engaged in food production, trade, processing, and consumer sales around the world. While they have distinct roles “from farm to fork,” they all share the same responsibility: to be part of the global transformation towards food system sustainability.
"A New Method for Calculating Cholesterol and Saturated Fat Contents and Determining Appropriate Cholesterol Levels in Foods"
ABED FOROUZESH, University of Tehran
FATEMEH FOROUZESH, Department of Medicine, Tehran Medical Branch, Islamic Azad University
SADEGH SAMADI FOROUSHANI, University of Tehran
ABOLFAZL FOROUZESH, Department of Medicine, Tehran Medical Branch, Islamic Azad University
Calculating the cholesterol and saturated fat contents per 100 g or 100 mL, 50 g, or the reference amount customarily consumed (RACC) shows the cholesterol and saturated fat contents of some foods inappropriately. So, making some food choices based on them to limit cholesterol and saturated fat intakes may increase the risks of some chronic diseases. Calculating the cholesterol and saturated fat contents and determining appropriate cholesterol levels (to limit cholesterol and saturated fat intakes) based on U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC), and the proposed method were performed in 8,068 food items. Making some food choices based on the FDA per serving (the serving is derived from the RACC, 100 g, or 50 g) or CAC per 100 g or 100 mL to limit cholesterol and saturated fat intakes exceeded cholesterol or saturated fat needs, which could lead to high LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol concentration in the blood. Some foods that did not exceed cholesterol and saturated fat needs were not appropriate food choices based on the FDA per serving or CAC per 100 g or 100 mL to limit cholesterol and saturated fat intakes. Making food choices based on the proposed method to limit cholesterol and saturated fat intakes did not exceed cholesterol and saturated fat needs. Also, foods that did not exceed cholesterol and saturated fat needs were appropriate food choices based on the proposed method to limit cholesterol and saturated fat intakes. About 56% and 95% of foods contained cholesterol and saturated fat, respectively. On the basis of the proposed method, the averages (%) of cholesterol free and low cholesterol foods in food groups were 34.83% and 38.67%, respectively. Fruits and fruit juices (99.35% and 99.35%), vegetables and vegetable products (94.39% and 94.92%), breakfast cereals (93.55% and 93.55%), cereal grains and pasta (90.24% and 90.24%), spices and herbs (88.71% and 88.71%), beverages (85.99% and 89.25%), and legumes and legume products (75.07% and 78.43%) had the highest averages (%) of cholesterol free and low cholesterol foods. Foods containing appropriate cholesterol levels were not found or were very few in eight food groups (lamb, veal, and game products; poultry products; pork products; beef products; finfish and shellfish products; sausages and luncheon meats; fast foods; restaurant foods). The highest amounts of cholesterol were found in animal organs (such as brain, kidney, liver, testes, giblets, spleen, sweetbread, gizzard, lungs, pancreas, heart, thymus, stomach, chitterlings, tongue, and tripe), egg yolks, scrambled eggs, omelet, whole eggs (such as turkey egg, duck egg, goose egg, quail egg, and chicken egg), sandwich with egg, breaded fried chicken, liver pate, chocolate mousse, fish oils (such as herring oil, sardine oil, cod liver oil, menhaden oil, and salmon oil), caviar, squid, cuttlefish, shrimp, lobster, and eel. In general, the cholesterol free and low cholesterol claims were not met in meat-containing foods, egg yolk-containing foods, and fat- or oil-containing foods. However, these claims were met in foods containing small amounts of meat, egg yolk, fat, or oil. Meats (such as beef, veal, lamb, mutton, pork, poultry, finfish, shellfish, and meat from other species), egg yolks, fats, and oils of animal origin contained cholesterol and saturated fat, and fats and oils of plant origin contained saturated fat.
"Not for Human Consumption: How to Alleviate the Cruelty Plaguing the Pet Food Industry in the United States"
Lewis & Clark Animal Law Review, Vol. 27, No. 2, Spring 2022
MARY-BAILEY FRANK, Duke Law School, Animal Legal Defense Fund
More than 37 billion dollars of pet food was sold in 2019, a sum that increased to approximately 42 billion dollars in 2020. In fact, forty-two of the fifty states have pet food facilities producing more than 3 million tons of animal-based pet food ingredients. Yet, in the last decade, multiple pet food brands have been found to contain trace amounts of euthanasia ‘death drugs’ and are made from 3D or 4D animals — those that are dead, dying, diseased, or disabled. While this can often cause sickness or death in companion animals, an equally urgent issue is the welfare of the animals being slaughtered to produce these poorly regulated and often dangerous pet food products.
Despite the slaughtering of farmed animals occurring at these facilities, oversight is limited to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), rather than the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). In fact, animals slaughtered for human consumption receive far more protection under the USDA’s authority than animals slaughtered for nonhuman consumption under the authority of the FDA. This means that a multibillion-dollar pet food industry is slaughtering animals in the United States, yet it is exempt from most animal welfare regulations. The pet food industry exemplifies the ironic reality that the animals humans purport to love most, our dogs and cats, are likely fed at the expense of some of the worst animal cruelty. Advocates and consumers concerned about animal welfare should not be satisfied with the mere food safety standards of the FDA; rather, the statutes enforced by the USDA for the humane treatment and welfare of animals slaughtered for food should be applicable regardless of whether the animals are slaughtered for human or nonhuman consumption. This Article argues the USDA should expand their oversight to include facilities slaughtering animals for nonhuman consumption, and that future legislation should serve to protect animals intended for both human and nonhuman consumption. Part II of this Article reviews the regulatory and legislative background of the pet food industry in the United States. Part III analyzes the animal welfare issues within the current landscape. Finally, Part IV offers specific solutions and opportunities for future research and improvements in the pet food industry.
About this eJournal
This area includes content with an aim to promote and bring together the rapidly emerging scholarship focusing on the regulation of food. At a time in which this area of law is progressively acquiring some autonomy vis-a-vis other areas of law, such as Administrative Law, and - given its international vocation - International Trade and International Health law, this eJournal nurtures the ambition to provide a one-stop shop for virtually all food-related papers published today at the global level. While the focus of this eJournal is predominantly the regulation of food products, their production methods and their marketing opportunities, it also extends to: agriculture and food law, human rights and food law (including the right to food and labor issues), antitrust and food law, international trade of food, food quality as well as food information (e.g. labeling schemes). Issues related to intellectual property aspects of food (e.g. geographical indications) are also pertinent to this Journal. Given the recent attention by food law regimes to the nutritional aspects of food, this eJournal also covers the regulation of nutritional and health claims, food reformulation and other nutritional-related measures such as fiscal measures. It equally covers the regulation of food and beverages. As witnessed by its advisory board, the scope of this eJournal is genuinely global and as such it reflects the increasingly globalized food supply chain and the broader discourse of food studies. Due to the inherently interdisciplinary and international nature of food regulation, this eJournal will also host papers coming not only from other disciplines than law but also from all over the world.
Editor: Alberto Alemanno, NYU School of Law
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