Identity and Underrepresentation: Interactions between Race and Gender

37 Pages Posted: 2 Jan 2019 Last revised: 3 May 2021

See all articles by Jean-Paul Carvalho

Jean-Paul Carvalho

University of California, Irvine - Department of Economics

Bary Pradelski

CNRS, Université Grenoble Alpes

Date Written: October 30, 2019

Abstract

Economic outcomes vary significantly across socio-demographic groups. In a model of multi-dimensional identity, we show how economic underrepresentation can evolve through identity-specific norms. Whereas standard approaches treat identity dimensions as independent, our analysis reveals deep connections between inequality and underrepresentation based on race, gender and other characteristics. `Sterilized interventions' along a single identity dimension are generally impossible. Interventions that aim to reduce underrepresentation along one identity dimension can increase underrepresentation along another. We show how underrepresentation can be eliminated along every dimension, through a system of (a) self-financing subsidies or (b) role models, where interventions are connected across identity dimensions.

Keywords: identity, education, labor force participation, inequality, underrepresentation, multi-dimensional

JEL Classification: D10, D63, D71, I24, J2, Z12, Z13

Suggested Citation

Carvalho, Jean-Paul and Pradelski, Bary, Identity and Underrepresentation: Interactions between Race and Gender (October 30, 2019). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3299477 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3299477

Jean-Paul Carvalho

University of California, Irvine - Department of Economics ( email )

3151 Social Science Plaza
Irvine, CA 92697-5100
United States

Bary Pradelski (Contact Author)

CNRS, Université Grenoble Alpes ( email )

Grenoble
France

HOME PAGE: http://cnrs.fr

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