E-Commerce and Digital Divide in Spain Using Individual Panel Data 2008-2016

30 Pages Posted: 23 May 2019

See all articles by Teodosio Perez Amaral

Teodosio Perez Amaral

Complutense University of Madrid - Facultad de Económicas y Empresariales

Angel Valarezo

Instituto Complutense de Análisis Económico | ICAE; Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM)

Rafael Lopez

Universidad Complutense de Madrid

Teresa Garín Muñoz

Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED)

Iñigo Herguera García

Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM) - Department of Fundamentals of Economic Analysis II (Quantitative Economics)

Date Written: April 23, 2019

Abstract

Digital technologies sometimes create digital divides. One of the remedies for certain divides in Europe is the creation of the Digital Single Market, of which e-commerce is one of the main elements. The focus of this work is e-commerce in Spain. The current study improves substantially on existing international literature by using a large and representative panel data set on individuals, with 133,420 observations for the period 2008-2016. Moreover, it uses economic models that incorporate previously omitted variables, and employs a variety of panel techniques. This paper starts by measuring digital divides and their evolution along time. Next, a model that incorporates previously neglected explanatory variables, such as income and digital skills, is formulated. Individual demand models are estimated using panel logistic regression techniques. This allows quantifying the impact of each of the socioeconomic and geographic characteristics on the adoption of the service. The resulting models have high explanatory power. Newly incorporated variables like income and digital skills are highly significant. Age, education, gender and geographical variables are also significant. The results also allow novel regional comparisons. Policy recommendations are derived, suggesting effective and affordable measures targeted at specific socio-demographic groups.

Keywords: e-commerce; digital divide; TIC-H survey; individual annual panel data; logistic regression; dynamic model; Heckman selection model

JEL Classification: C25; D11; O33

Suggested Citation

Perez Amaral, Teodosio and Valarezo Unda, Angel and Lopez, Rafael and Garín-Muñoz, Teresa and Herguera García, Iñigo, E-Commerce and Digital Divide in Spain Using Individual Panel Data 2008-2016 (April 23, 2019). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3376544 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3376544

Teodosio Perez Amaral

Complutense University of Madrid - Facultad de Económicas y Empresariales ( email )

Madrid, 28223
Spain

Angel Valarezo Unda (Contact Author)

Instituto Complutense de Análisis Económico | ICAE ( email )

Campus de Somosaguas
Pozuelo, Madrid 28260
Spain
91 394 2611 (Phone)

HOME PAGE: http://https://www.ucm.es/icae/

Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM) ( email )

Carretera de Humera s/n
Madrid, Madrid 28223
Spain

Rafael Lopez

Universidad Complutense de Madrid ( email )

Campus de Somosaguas
Madrid
Spain
+34 91 394 3158 (Phone)

Teresa Garín-Muñoz

Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED) ( email )

C/ Senda del Rey 11
Madrid, 28040
Spain
0034913987814 (Phone)
0034913986339 (Fax)

Iñigo Herguera García

Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM) - Department of Fundamentals of Economic Analysis II (Quantitative Economics) ( email )

Campus of Somosaguas
28223- Somosaguas, Madrid
Spain
(34) 91-394.23.62 (Phone)
(34) 91- 394.26.13 (Fax)

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