Reducing Implicit Racial Preferences: I. A Comparative Investigation of 17 Interventions

68 Pages Posted: 2 Oct 2012 Last revised: 11 Sep 2016

Calvin K. Lai

Harvard University

Maddalena Marini

Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia (UNIMORE)

Steven A. Lehr

Harvard University

Carlo Cerruti

Harvard University

Jiyun Elizabeth L. Shin

State University of New York (SUNY) - Department of Psychology

Jennifer Joy-Gaba

Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU)

Arnold K. Ho

Colgate University; University of Michigan at Ann Arbor

Bethany A. Teachman

University of Virginia

Sean P. Wojcik

University of California, Irvine

Sena Koleva

University of California, Irvine - School of Social Ecology; New York University; California State University Los Angeles

Rebecca S. Frazier

University of Virginia

Larisa Heiphetz

Harvard University

Eva E. Chen

Hong Kong University of Science & Technology (HKUST)

Rhiannon N. Turner

Queen's University Belfast

Jonathan Haidt

New York University (NYU) - Leonard N. Stern School of Business

Selin Kesebir

London Business School

Carlee Beth Hawkins

University of Virginia

Hillary S. Schaefer

University of Virginia

Sandro Rubichi

Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia (UNIMORE)

Giuseppe Sartori

University of Padua

Christopher M. Dial

Harvard University

N. Sriram

University of Virginia

Mahzarin R. Banaji

Harvard University - Department of Psychology; Harvard University - Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics

Brian A. Nosek

University of Virginia

Date Written: September 9, 2016

Abstract

Many methods for reducing implicit prejudice have been identified, but little is known about their relative effectiveness. We held a research contest to experimentally compare interventions for reducing the expression of implicit racial prejudice. Teams submitted seventeen interventions that were tested an average of 3.70 times each in four studies (total N = 17,021), with rules for revising interventions between studies. Eight of seventeen interventions were effective at reducing implicit preferences for Whites compared to Blacks, particularly ones that provided experience with counterstereotypical exemplars, used evaluative conditioning methods, and provided strategies to override biases. The other nine interventions were ineffective, particularly ones that engaged participants with others’ perspectives, asked participants to consider egalitarian values, or induced a positive emotion. The most potent interventions were ones that invoked high self-involvement or linked Black people with positivity and White people with negativity. No intervention consistently reduced explicit racial preferences. Furthermore, intervention effectiveness only weakly extended to implicit preferences for Asians and Hispanics.

Keywords: attitudes, racial prejudice, implicit social cognition, malleability, Implicit Association Test, psychology, prejudice

Suggested Citation

Lai, Calvin K. and Marini, Maddalena and Lehr, Steven A. and Cerruti, Carlo and Shin, Jiyun Elizabeth L. and Joy-Gaba, Jennifer and Ho, Arnold K. and Teachman, Bethany A. and Wojcik, Sean P. and Koleva, Sena and Frazier, Rebecca S. and Heiphetz, Larisa and Chen, Eva E. and Turner, Rhiannon N. and Haidt, Jonathan and Kesebir, Selin and Hawkins, Carlee Beth and Schaefer, Hillary S. and Rubichi, Sandro and Sartori, Giuseppe and Dial, Christopher M. and Sriram, N. and Banaji, Mahzarin R. and Nosek, Brian A., Reducing Implicit Racial Preferences: I. A Comparative Investigation of 17 Interventions (September 9, 2016). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2155175 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2155175

Calvin K. Lai (Contact Author)

Harvard University ( email )

124 Mount Auburn Street
520N
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

Maddalena Marini

Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia (UNIMORE) ( email )

viale Allegri, 9
Modena, Reggio Emilia 42121
Italy

Steven A. Lehr

Harvard University ( email )

1875 Cambridge Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

Carlo Cerruti

Harvard University ( email )

1875 Cambridge Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

Jiyun Elizabeth L. Shin

State University of New York (SUNY) - Department of Psychology ( email )

Stony Brook, NY 11733-2500
United States

Jennifer Joy-Gaba

Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) ( email )

1015 Floyd Avenue
Richmond, VA 23284
United States

Arnold K. Ho

University of Michigan at Ann Arbor ( email )

500 S. State Street
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
United States

Colgate University ( email )

13 Oak Drive
Hamilton NY 13346, NY 13346
United States

Bethany A. Teachman

University of Virginia ( email )

1400 University Ave
Charlottesville, VA 22903
United States

Sean P. Wojcik

University of California, Irvine ( email )

Campus Drive
Irvine, CA 92697
United States

Spassena Koleva

University of California, Irvine - School of Social Ecology ( email )

226B Social Ecology 1
Irvine, CA 92697
United States

New York University

20 Cooper Square 3rd Floor
New York, NY 10003-711
United States

California State University Los Angeles ( email )

5151 State University Dr
Los Angeles, CA 90032
United States

Rebecca S. Frazier

University of Virginia ( email )

1400 University Ave
Charlottesville, VA 22903
United States

Larisa Heiphetz

Harvard University ( email )

1875 Cambridge Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

Eva E. Chen

Hong Kong University of Science & Technology (HKUST) ( email )

Rhiannon N. Turner

Queen's University Belfast ( email )

25 University Square
Belfast, BT7 1NN
Ireland

Jonathan Haidt

New York University (NYU) - Leonard N. Stern School of Business ( email )

NYU-Stern School of Business
44 West 4th Street
New York, NY NY 10012
United States

Selin Kesebir

London Business School ( email )

Regent's Park
NW1 4SA
London
United Kingdom

HOME PAGE: http://people.virginia.edu/~sk8dm

Carlee Beth Hawkins

University of Virginia ( email )

1400 University Ave
Charlottesville, VA 22903
United States

Hillary S. Schaefer

University of Virginia ( email )

1400 University Ave
Charlottesville, VA 22903
United States

Sandro Rubichi

Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia (UNIMORE) ( email )

Viale A. Allegri 9
Modena, Modena 42121
Italy

Giuseppe Sartori

University of Padua ( email )

Via 8 Febbraio, 2
Padova, Vicenza 35122
Italy

Christopher M. Dial

Harvard University ( email )

Department of Psychology
33 Kirkland St 15th FL
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States
(617) 384-9654 (Phone)
(617) 384-9517 (Fax)

N. Sriram

University of Virginia ( email )

1400 University Ave
Charlottesville, VA 22903
United States

Mahzarin R. Banaji

Harvard University - Department of Psychology ( email )

33 Kirkland St.
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

Harvard University - Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics ( email )

124 Mount Auburn Street
Suite 520N
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

Brian A. Nosek

University of Virginia ( email )

1400 University Ave
Charlottesville, VA 22903
United States

Paper statistics

Downloads
1,994
Rank
5,417
Abstract Views
9,935