FORE! An Analysis of CEO Shirking
50 Pages Posted: 13 Sep 2014 Last revised: 5 Nov 2014
Date Written: August 1, 2014
Using golf play as a measure of leisure, we document that there is significant variation in the amount of leisure that CEOs consume. We find that they consume more leisure when they have lower equity-based incentives. CEOs that golf frequently (i.e., those in the top quartile of golf play, who play at least 22 rounds per year) are associated with firms that have lower operating performance and firm values. Numerous tests accounting for the possible endogenous nature of these relations support a conclusion that CEO shirking causes lower firm performance. We find that boards are more likely to replace CEOs who shirk, but CEOs with longer tenures or weaker governance environments appear to avoid disciplinary consequences.
Keywords: CEO, Chief Executive Officer, Shirking, Leisure, Incentives Compensation
JEL Classification: G30, G32, G34
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation