Reducing Participant Costs Without Sacrificing Statistical Power in Consumer Research: An Introduction to Pre-registered Interim Analysis Designs (Priads)

Journal of Consumer Research (https://doi.org/10.1093/jcr/ucae028)

62 Pages Posted: 28 Sep 2023 Last revised: 22 Apr 2024

See all articles by Quentin André

Quentin André

University of Colorado at Boulder - Department of Marketing

Nicholas Reinholtz

University of Colorado at Boulder - Leeds School of Business

Date Written: January 19, 2024

Abstract

The difficulty of determining how many observations to collect is a source of inefficiency in consumer behavior research. Group sequential designs, which allow researchers to perform interim analyses while data collection is ongoing, could offer a remedy. However, they are scarcely used in consumer behavior research, probably owing to low awareness, perceived complexity, or concerns about the validity of this approach. This paper offers a tutorial on group sequential designs and introduces Pre-Registered Interim Analysis Designs (PRIADs): A practical five-step procedure to facilitate the adoption of these designs in marketing. We show that group sequential designs can be easily adopted by marketing researchers, and introduce a companion app to help researchers implement them. We demonstrate multiple benefits of PRIADs for researchers engaged in confirmatory hypothesis testing: They facilitate sample size decisions, allow researchers to achieve a desired level of statistical power with a smaller number of observations, and help conduct more efficient pilot studies. We validate this cost-saving potential through a comprehensive re-analysis of 212 studies published in the Journal of Consumer Research, which shows that using PRIADs would have reduced participant costs by 20% to 29%. We conclude with a discussion of limitations and possible alternatives to PRIADs.

Keywords: experiments, experimental methods, power analysis, group sequential designs, meta-science, statistics

Suggested Citation

André, Quentin and Reinholtz, Nicholas, Reducing Participant Costs Without Sacrificing Statistical Power in Consumer Research: An Introduction to Pre-registered Interim Analysis Designs (Priads) (January 19, 2024). Journal of Consumer Research (https://doi.org/10.1093/jcr/ucae028), Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4561485 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4561485

Quentin André (Contact Author)

University of Colorado at Boulder - Department of Marketing ( email )

United States

Nicholas Reinholtz

University of Colorado at Boulder - Leeds School of Business ( email )

Boulder, CO 80309-0419
United States

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