Andrew W. Torrance

University of Kansas School of Law

Paul E. Wilson Distinguished Professor of Law

Green Hall

1535 W. 15th Street

Lawrence, KS 66045-7577

United States

MIT Sloan School of Management

Visiting Scientist

100 Main Street

Cambridge, MA 02142

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

61

DOWNLOADS
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16,706

SSRN CITATIONS
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Top 27,202

in Total Papers Citations

20

CROSSREF CITATIONS

22

Scholarly Papers (61)

1.

Patents and the Regress of Useful Arts

Columbia Science and Technology Law Review, Vol. 10, 2009
Number of pages: 39 Posted: 30 May 2009
Andrew W. Torrance and Bill Tomlinson
University of Kansas School of Law and University of California, Irvine
Downloads 2,056 (14,474)
Citation 4

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Patent, patent law, patent system, patent clause, intellectual property, innovation, open innovation, commons, technological innovation, invention, game, simulation, empirical, productivity, social utility, license, infringement, enforcement, economic experiment

2.

Intellectual Property as the Third Dimension of GMO Regulation

Kansas Journal of Law & Pubic Policy, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 257-285, 2007
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 29 Sep 2008
Andrew W. Torrance
University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 835 (54,546)

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patents, genetic engineering, GMO, environment, health

3.

All Patents Great and Small: A Big Data Network Approach to Valuation

Virginia Journal of Law and Technology, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2017
Number of pages: 39 Posted: 29 Mar 2017 Last Revised: 17 Jul 2023
Andrew W. Torrance and Jevin D. West
University of Kansas School of Law and University of Washington
Downloads 778 (60,024)
Citation 2

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patent, patent value, patent law, patent economics, United States Patent & Trademark Office, USPTO, citation, imprimatur, network, network analysis, patent importance, importance, and valuation, patent analytics, and empirical patent analysis

4.

Synthesizing Law for Synthetic Biology

Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 629-65, 2010
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 25 Jun 2010
Andrew W. Torrance
University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 727 (65,691)
Citation 1

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synthetic biology, biological engineering, gene, DNA, patent, copyright, intellectual property, trademark, gene patent, gene copyright, gene trademark, biotechnology, genetic engineering, bioethics, biosafety, biosecurity, open source biology, biobrick, user innovation, open innovation

5.

Property Rules, Liability Rules, and Patents: One Experimental View of the Cathedral

Yale Journal of Law & Technology, Vo. 14, p. 138, 2011
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 29 Jan 2012
Andrew W. Torrance and Bill Tomlinson
University of Kansas School of Law and University of California, Irvine
Downloads 660 (74,272)

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patent, patent law, patent infringement, patent enforcement, liability rule, property rule, injunction, damages, Calabresi, Melamed, experiment, simulation game, innovation, invention, productivity, wealth, social utility

6.

The Right to Innovate

Michigan State Law Review, No. 793, 2015
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 12 Oct 2013 Last Revised: 08 Oct 2015
Andrew W. Torrance and Eric A. von Hippel
University of Kansas School of Law and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Sloan School of Management
Downloads 656 (74,848)
Citation 4

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innovation wetlands, right to innovate, innovation rights and innovation, user innovation, open innovation, invention, intellectual property, regulation, patent, copyright, privacy, commerce, freedom, liberty, infringement, agency

7.

Intellectual Property and Public Health – A White Paper

Akron Intellectual Property Journal, Vol. 7, 2013, U of Akron Legal Studies Research Paper No. 13-11, Northeastern University School of Law Research Paper No. 152-2013, Seton Hall Public Law Research Paper No. 2259089, Georgia State University College of Law, Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2014-22
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 02 May 2013 Last Revised: 19 Jun 2014
University of New Hampshire School of Law, Michigan State University - College of Law, University of Akron - School of Law, Regent University School of Law, University of Louisville - Louis D. Brandeis School of Law, Georgia State University College of Law, Cornell Law School, University of Akron - School of Law, University of Akron - School of Law, New York University School of Law, Northeastern University - School of Law, University of Kansas School of Law and Case Western Reserve University School of Law
Downloads 563 (90,739)

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public health, intellectual property, TRIPS, patent, healthcare, health, big data, innovation, health care, pharmaceuticals, alternatives, Hatch-Waxman, prizes, collectively governed systems, clinical trials, black box, transparency, Obamacare, privacy, human rights

8.

Physiological Steps Doctrine

Berkeley Technology Law Journal, Vol. 23, pp. 1471-1505, 2008
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 15 Mar 2009
Andrew W. Torrance
University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 546 (94,305)

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Patent, pharmaceutical, drug, biotechnology, in vivo conversion, prodrug, statutory subject matter, patentability, patentable subject matter, mental steps doctrine, physiological steps doctrine, abbreviated new drug application, ANDA, generic drug, inherency, evidence

9.

Social Welfare Gains from Innovation Commons: Theory, Evidence, and Policy Implications

Number of pages: 34 Posted: 03 Sep 2021
Royal Melbourne Institute of Technolog (RMIT University), University of Kansas School of Law, Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Sloan School of Management
Downloads 543 (94,964)
Citation 3

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innovation commons, economics of data, intellectual property, innovation policy

10.

Patenting Human Evolution

Kansas Law Review, Vol. 56, p. 1075, 2008
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 13 Nov 2008
Andrew W. Torrance
University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 534 (96,912)

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patent, gene, genetic, genetic engineering, genetic modification, evolution, human evolution, genetic enhancement, human genetic enhancement, human evolution

11.

Gene Concepts, Gene Talk, and Gene Patents

Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 157-191, 2010
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 14 May 2010
Andrew W. Torrance
University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 516 (101,176)

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Gene, Patent, Gene Patent, Patent Law, Gene Talk, DNA, DNA Patent, Biotechnology, Biotechnology Patent, Biotechnology Patent Law, History of Science, Science And Technology Studies

12.

DNA Copyright

Valparaiso University Law Review, Vol. 46, pp. 1-41, 2011
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 11 Mar 2012
Andrew W. Torrance
University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 490 (107,748)

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copyright, DNA, gene, nucleotide, synthetic biology, synthetic DNA, synthetic gene, recombinant DNA, intellectual property, IP, patent, biotechnology, author, authorship, expression, expressive, functionality, functional, useful, fair use, software, literary, literary work

13.

An Extinction Bar to Patentability

Georgetown International Environmental Law Review (GIELR), Vol. 20, pp. 237-270, 2008
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 29 Sep 2008
Andrew W. Torrance
University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 479 (110,701)

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patents, biodiversity, biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, medicine, bioprospecting, biological deposits, enablement, extinction, conservation

14.

Training Is Everything: Artificial Intelligence, Copyright, and Fair Training

Dickinson Law Review, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 09 May 2023
Andrew W. Torrance and Bill Tomlinson
University of Kansas School of Law and University of California, Irvine
Downloads 454 (118,861)

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law, artificial intelligence, fair use, fair training

15.

Metaphysics and Patenting Life

University of Missouri-Kansas City Law Review, Vol. 76, p. 363, 2007
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 12 Oct 2008
Andrew W. Torrance
University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 443 (121,370)

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patent, patentable subject matter, evolution, religion

16.

Patent Law, HIPPO, and the Biodiversity Crisis

John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law, Vol. 9, pp. 624-656, 2010
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 07 Apr 2010 Last Revised: 01 Jun 2014
Andrew W. Torrance
University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 406 (134,316)

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patent, intellectual property, environment, biodiversity, conservation, technology, invention, habitat, invasive species, pollution, population, hunting, extinction

17.

Patents to the Rescue - Disasters and Patent Law

DePaul Journal of Health Care Law, Vol. 10, p. 309, 2007
Number of pages: 50 Posted: 26 Sep 2008 Last Revised: 28 Sep 2008
Andrew W. Torrance
University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 398 (137,378)

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patents, disasters, innovation

18.

Book Review: Human Rights and the WTO: The Case of Patents and Access to Medicines, by Holger Hestermeyer

The IP Book Law Review, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 46-49, June 2010
Number of pages: 5 Posted: 12 Jul 2010
Andrew W. Torrance
University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 375 (146,927)

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patent, patent law, patent rights, drug, medicine, pharmaceutical, human rights, access to medicine, international trade, World Trade Organization, WTO, Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property, TRIPS, less developed country, developing country

ChatGPT and Works Scholarly: Best Practices and Legal Pitfalls in Writing with AI

SMU Law Review Forum, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 09 May 2023
Bill Tomlinson, Andrew W. Torrance and Rebecca Black
University of California, Irvine, University of Kansas School of Law and University of California, Irvine
Downloads 184 (298,577)

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law, AI, ChatGPT, scholarship

ChatGPT and Works Scholarly: Best Practices and Legal Pitfalls in Writing with AI

76 SMU L. REV. F. 108
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 26 Oct 2023
Bill Tomlinson, Andrew W. Torrance and Rebecca Black
University of California, Irvine, University of Kansas School of Law and University of California, Irvine
Downloads 156 (345,314)

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law, AI, ChatGPT, scholarship

20.

Beauty Fades: An Experimental Study of Federal Court Design Patent Aesthetics

Journal of Intellectual Property Law, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2012
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 24 Feb 2020
Andrew W. Torrance
University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 340 (163,556)
Citation 1

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Design patent, design, patent, patent litigation, aesthetics, beauty, ornamental, intellectual property, design protection, validity, invalidity, infringement, experiment, experimental law, empirical, judge, Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit

21.

Free Medical Innovation by Patients – No Producers Required

Number of pages: 12 Posted: 12 Sep 2018
Harvard University - Massachusetts General Hospital, Copenhagen Business School, University of Kansas School of Law, University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Sloan School of Management
Downloads 297 (188,796)
Citation 2

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innovation, user innovation, patient innovation, medical innovation

22.

Open and Proprietary Biological Innovation in Human Genetic Enhancement

Washington University Journal of Law and Policy, Vol. 30, pp. 93-138, 2009
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 06 Feb 2010
Andrew W. Torrance
University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 285 (197,056)

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Patent, Open Source, Biology, Biotechnology, Enhancement, Gene, Innovation, Patent Law, Gene Patent, Human Enhancement, Genetic Enhancement, Genetic Engineering, Open Source Biology, Human Evolution

23.

Planted Obsolescence: Synagriculture and the Law

Idaho Law Review, Vol. 48, p. 321, 2012
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 28 Jun 2012
Andrew W. Torrance
University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 276 (203,655)

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synagriculture, synthetic biological agriculture, agriculture, genetically-modified crop, genetically-modified livestock, GM agriculture, GM crop, GM livestock, genetic engineering, genetically engineered crop, genetically engineered livestock, GE agriculture, GE crop, GE livestock, agricultural law

24.

The Carbon Emissions of Writing and Illustrating Are Lower for AI than for Humans

Number of pages: 8 Posted: 07 Apr 2023
Bill Tomlinson, Rebecca Black, Donald Patterson and Andrew W. Torrance
University of California, Irvine, University of California, Irvine, Westmont College and University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 271 (207,449)

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AI, Artificial intelligence, carbon emissions, environmental impacts, sustainability, ChatGPT, GPT-3, BLOOM, DALL-E2, Midjourney, writing, illustration

25.

Patent Expertise and the Regress of Useful Arts

Southern Illinois University Law Journal, Vol. 33, pp. 239-277, 2009
Number of pages: 39 Posted: 05 Feb 2010
Andrew W. Torrance and Bill Tomlinson
University of Kansas School of Law and University of California, Irvine
Downloads 263 (213,679)

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Patent, innovation, open innovation, commons, open source, patent law, game, simulation, patent system, innovation, productivity, social utility, expertise, user innovation

26.
Downloads 243 (231,078)

Neurobiology and Patenting Thought

IDEA: The Journal of Law and Technology, Vol. 50, pp. 27-48, 2009
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 05 Feb 2010
Andrew W. Torrance
University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 243 (230,015)

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Thought, patent, neurobiology, thought patent, mental steps doctrine, executive control, First Amendment, Thirteenth Amendment, patent law, patentability, patentable subject matter

Neurobiology and Patenting Thought

Gruter Institute Squaw Valley Conference 2009: Law, Behavior & the Brain
Posted: 15 May 2009
Andrew W. Torrance
University of Kansas School of Law

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27.

Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues in the Earth BioGenome Project

University of Illinois College of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 21-10, University at Buffalo School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2020-013
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 06 May 2021 Last Revised: 29 Sep 2022
University of Illinois College of Law, The Smithsonian Institution, University at Buffalo Law School, Arizona State University (ASU) - School for the Future of Innovation in Society, University of Cambridge - Department of Genetics, National Institutes of Health (NIH) - National Human Genome Research Institute, George Washington University - Milken Institute School of Public Health, University of Waikato, The Smithsonian Institution, UC Davis, Johns Hopkins University - Berman Institute of Bioethics, Wellcome Sanger Institute, National Institutes of Health (NIH) - National Human Genome Research Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), University of Kansas School of Law and Stanford Law School
Downloads 238 (235,841)
Citation 2

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genomics, ELSI, EBP, ABS, biodiversity

28.

Bringing Standards to Life: Synthetic Biology Standards and Intellectual Property

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal, Vol. 30, No. 2, 2014
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 19 Apr 2014 Last Revised: 24 Apr 2014
Andrew W. Torrance and Linda Kahl
University of Kansas School of Law and The BioBricks Foundation
Downloads 236 (237,754)

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synthetic biology, patents, standards, law, policies, licensing, property rights, biosecurity

29.

The Unpatentable Human Being

Hastings Center Report, Vol. 43, No. 5 (2013): 10-11
Number of pages: 2 Posted: 11 Oct 2013
Andrew W. Torrance
University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 221 (253,146)

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Intellectual property, patent, patentability, patentable subject matter, human, human body, gene, DNA, embryonic stem cell, in vivo conversion, prodrug, metabolite, physiology, thought, mental step, Myriad, Prometheus, Bilski, Metabolite, synthetic DNA, copyright, 13th Amendment, biotechnology

30.

Turning Fake Data into Fake News: The A.I. Training Set as a Trojan Horse of Misinformation

San Diego Law Journal, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 25 Jul 2023
Bill Tomlinson, Donald Patterson and Andrew W. Torrance
University of California, Irvine, Westmont College and University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 220 (257,503)

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Artificial intelligence, AI, fake news, training set, misinformation

31.

Are Engineered Genetic Sequences Copyrightable?: The U.S. Copyright Office Addresses a Matter of First Impression

35 Biotechnology Law Report 103 (2016)
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 02 Oct 2016
Christopher M. Holman, Claes Gustafsson and Andrew W. Torrance
University of Missouri - Kansas City School of Law, Independent and University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 203 (273,883)
Citation 2

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Copyright, Copyright Office, Copyright Registration, DNA Copyright, Gene Copyright, Synthetic Biology, Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering

32.

When Patients Become Innovators

MIT Sloan Management Review, Spring 2019
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 15 Apr 2019
Harvard University - Massachusetts General Hospital, Copenhagen Business School, University of Kansas School of Law, University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Sloan School of Management
Downloads 201 (276,335)

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innovation, open innovation, patient innovation

33.

Family Law and the Genomic Revolution

University of Missouri-Kansas City Law Review, Vol. 79, No. 2, pp. 271-282, 2010
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 23 Apr 2011
Andrew W. Torrance
University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 161 (336,152)

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Family law, genome, genomics, gene, DNA, child, parent, patent, genetic enhancement, medicine, diagnostic, therapeutic, gene therapy, synthetic biology, stem cell , intellectual property, enhancement, genetic enhancement

34.

(R)evolution in Design Patentable Subject Matter: The Shifting Meaning of 'Article of Manufacture'

17 Stanford Technology Law Review 183 (2013)
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 08 Mar 2014 Last Revised: 10 Mar 2014
William Seymour and Andrew W. Torrance
Lando & Anastasi and University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 139 (378,765)

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Design patent, design, patent, article of manufacture, computer generated image, intellectual property, patent law, design patent law

35.

Nothing Under the Sun that is Made of Man

Michigan State Law Review, Vol. 2020, No. 1426, 2021
Number of pages: 56 Posted: 11 Mar 2022
Andrew W. Torrance
University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 121 (421,333)

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Intellectual property, patent, patentability, patentable subject matter, human, human body, gene, genome, DNA, embryonic stem cell, in vivo conversion, prodrug, metabolite, physiology, thought, mental step, mental steps doctrine, Myriad Genetics, Prometheus, Bilski, Alice, Metabolite, synthetic DNA

36.

A Natural Experiment on Innovation Without Patents

Festschrift for Eric von Hippel, Karim Lakhani and Dietmar Harhoff, eds. 2014
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 13 May 2015 Last Revised: 27 May 2015
Andrew W. Torrance
University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 117 (432,081)
Citation 1

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Innovation, patent, patent law, America Invents Act, Section 33, biotechnology, natural experiment, human, gene, stem cell, in vivo conversion, user innovation, open innovation, invention, Eric von Hippel

37.

Biotechnology Patent Law Top Ten of 2018 - Broad Wins, Sovereignty Loses, and Patents Dance

Akron Law Review, Vol. 52:637, 2019
Number of pages: 60 Posted: 10 Jul 2019 Last Revised: 06 Aug 2019
Kevin Noonan and Andrew W. Torrance
McDonnell Boehnen Hulbert & Berghoff and University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 95 (500,600)
Citation 1

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biotechnology, biotech, patent, obviousness, patentable subject matter, sovereign immunity, inter partes review, CRISPR, biosimilar, patent dance, inequitable conduct, infringement, combination invention

38.

Better to Give than to Receive: An Uncommon Commons in Synthetic Biology

Governing Medical Knowledge Commons, 192-221 (Katherine J. Strandburg, Brett M. Frischmann, & Michael J. Madison, eds., Cambridge University Press, 2017).
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 13 Mar 2018
Andrew W. Torrance
University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 89 (521,729)
Citation 1

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invention, innovation, technology, technological innovation, user innovation, free innovation, collaborative innovation, open innovation, household innovation, intellectual property, patent

39.

A Meeting of Innovation Minds

Northwestern University Law Review, Vol. 112, 2018
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 27 Feb 2018
Andrew W. Torrance and Eric A. von Hippel
University of Kansas School of Law and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Sloan School of Management
Downloads 83 (544,500)

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Invention, Innovation, Technology, Technological Innovation, User Innovation, Free Innovation, Collaborative Innovation, Open Innovation, Household Innovation, Intellectual Property, Patent

40.

Governance of the AI, by the AI, and for the AI

Mississippi Law Journal, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 14 May 2023
Andrew W. Torrance and Bill Tomlinson
University of Kansas School of Law and University of California, Irvine
Downloads 82 (548,437)

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law, technology, artificial intelligence, governance

41.

Biotechnology Patent Law Top Ten of 2019: Secret Sales, Denied Appeals, and the Promise of Coronavirus Cures

University of New Hampshire Law Review, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2021
Number of pages: 62 Posted: 28 Apr 2021
Kevin Noonan and Andrew W. Torrance
McDonnell Boehnen Hulbert & Berghoff and University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 75 (577,562)

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biotechnology patent law, biotechnology, patent, 2019, litigation, enablement, novelty, obviousness, written description, best mode, doctrine of equivalents, interference, prosecution history estoppel

42.

Massively Distributed Authorship of Academic Papers

ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2012) Extended Abstracts (alt.chi)
Number of pages: 10 Posted: 08 Nov 2013
University of California, Irvine, University of Washington - The Information School, Carnegie Mellon University, Cornell University, Westmont College, Independent, Independent, University of British Columbia (UBC), Independent, University of Bergamo - Department of Human and Social Sciences, Technische Universität München (TUM), University of Kansas School of Law, Independent, University of California, Irvine, IG Metall, Technical University of Darmstadt, Independent, Bogazici University, Independent, University of Puget Sound, Independent, Independent, University of California, Irvine, University of California, Irvine, Indiana University Bloomington - School of Informatics and Computing, Independent, Independent, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Independent, Independent and University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC) - The Hilltop Institute
Downloads 72 (590,811)

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writing, crowdsourcing, collaboration, scholarship, research

43.

User Innovation: A Novel Framework for Studying Animal Innovation within a Comparative Context

Animal Cognition, 2019
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 03 Oct 2019
Lydia Hopper and Andrew W. Torrance
Lester E. Fisher Center for the Study and Conservation of Apes, Lincoln Park Zoo and University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 63 (633,856)

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user innovation, free innovation, problem solving, play, social learning, innovation, open innovation, evolution, animals, non-human innovation, tools, technology, origins of technology

44.
Downloads 58 (660,138)

Scientists’ Warning on Technology

Number of pages: 29 Posted: 03 May 2023
Bill Tomlinson, Andrew W. Torrance and William J. Ripple
University of California, Irvine, University of Kansas School of Law and Oregon State University
Downloads 41 (785,782)

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technology, environment, sustainability, climate change, artificial intelligence, clean energy, scientists' warning

Scientists’ Warning on Technology

Bill Tomlinson, Andrew W. Torrance, William J. Ripple, 2024, Scientists’ warning on technology, Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 434, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2023.140074.
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 20 Dec 2023
Bill Tomlinson, Andrew W. Torrance and William J. Ripple
University of California, Irvine, University of Kansas School of Law and Oregon State University
Downloads 17 (1,005,905)

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technology, environment, sustainability, climate change, artificial intelligence, clean energy, scientists' warning

45.

Late-Binding Scholarship in the Age of AI: Navigating Legal and Normative Challenges of a New Form of Knowledge Production

UMKC Law Review, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 39 Posted: 14 May 2023
Bill Tomlinson, Andrew W. Torrance, Rebecca Black and Donald Patterson
University of California, Irvine, University of Kansas School of Law, University of California, Irvine and Westmont College
Downloads 54 (682,602)

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law, scholarship, artificial intelligence

46.

Canadian Inventors of U.S. Patents: An Empirical Study for the Canadian Ministry of Innovation, Science and Economic Development

Number of pages: 53 Posted: 07 May 2019
Andrew W. Torrance and Jevin D. West
University of Kansas School of Law and University of Washington
Downloads 51 (700,237)

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Patent, Innovation, Inventor, Canada, United States, Patent Importance, Patent Value, Innovation Policy, Litigation, Patent Litigation

47.

'Environment-Selected Directors': An Interactive Simulation Experiment of Environmental Representation on Corporate Boards

Ecological Economics, Vol. 178, 2020
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 20 Oct 2020 Last Revised: 30 Jul 2023
University of California, Irvine, IG Metall, University of Kansas School of Law, University of California, Irvine School of Law, University of California, Irvine, University of California, Irvine - Department of Informatics, University of California, Irvine, University of California, Irvine, University of California, Irvine - Department of Computer Science and University of Kansas - School of Law
Downloads 49 (712,793)

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Stakeholder Representation, Corporate Boards, Environment, Non-human Personhood, Accountable Capitalism Act

48.

Training is Everything: Artificial Intelligence, Copyright, and “Fair Training”

Andrew W. Torrance & Bill Tomlinson, Training is Everything: Artificial Intelligence, Copyright, and “Fair Training”, 128 DICK. L. REV. 233 (2023). Available at: https://ideas.dickinsonlaw.psu.edu/dlr/vol128/iss1/6
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 20 Feb 2024
Andrew W. Torrance and Bill Tomlinson
University of Kansas School of Law and University of California, Irvine
Downloads 44 (745,178)

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law, artificial intelligence, fair use, fair training

49.

Biotechnology Patent Law Top Ten of 2020: Valeant Victorious, Falling Eagle, and Successful Slayback

8 Tex. A&M J. Prop. L. 409-472 (2022)
Number of pages: 64 Posted: 27 May 2022
Andrew W. Torrance and Kevin Noonan
University of Kansas School of Law and McDonnell Boehnen Hulbert & Berghoff
Downloads 43 (752,006)

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biotechnology patent law, biotechnology, patent, 2020, litigation, enablement, novelty, obviousness, written description, best mode, doctrine of equivalents, interference, prosecution history estoppel, infringement, inducement, ANDA, patentable subject matter, common ownership, CRISPR, CoVID-19

50.

Accountability with a Capital “Ism”: A Computational Simulation of the Accountable Capitalism Act vs. Delaware Corporate Law

B. Tomlinson, M. S. Silberman, A. W. Torrance, Y. Xie, R. W. Black, K. Squire, P. S. Atwal, A. Mandalik, and S. Railkar. 2020. “Accountability with a Capital ‘Ism’: A Computational Simulation of the Accountable Capitalism Act vs. Delaware Corporate Law.” Ohio State Technology Law Journal.
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 18 Feb 2021
University of California, Irvine, IG Metall, University of Kansas School of Law, University of California, Irvine, University of California, Irvine, University of California, Irvine - Department of Informatics, University of California, Irvine, University of California, Irvine and University of California, Irvine - Department of Computer Science
Downloads 41 (766,046)

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Stakeholder Representation, Corporate Boards, Accountable Capitalism Act, Delaware Corporate Law

51.

Judging Corporate Directors by the Companies They Keep: Results from An Interactive Simulation about the Motivations of Corporate Directors

University of Pennsylvania Journal of Law & Public Affairs 2020
Number of pages: 39 Posted: 07 Feb 2021
University of California, Irvine, University of Kansas School of Law, University of California, Irvine, IG Metall, University of California, Irvine and University of California, Irvine
Downloads 39 (780,491)

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52.

Fault Lines: An Empirical Legal Study of California Secession

Tomlinson, Bill and Torrance, Andrew W. (2020) "Fault Lines: An Empirical Legal Study of California Secession," Seattle Journal of Technology, Environmental & Innovation Law: Vol. 11 : Iss. 1 , Article 1. Available at: https://digitalcommons.law.seattleu.edu/sjteil/vol11/iss1/1
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 21 Feb 2021
Bill Tomlinson and Andrew W. Torrance
University of California, Irvine and University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 38 (787,800)

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Secession, California, Legal Study, Empirical Study, California Secession

53.

Biotechnology Patent Law Top Ten of 2021 Experimentation, Blaze Marks, and Unspecified Ranges

Santa Clara Computer and High Technology Law Journal, Vol. 38, 2022
Number of pages: 82 Posted: 06 Mar 2023
Kevin Noonan and Andrew W. Torrance
McDonnell Boehnen Hulbert & Berghoff and University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 36 (802,895)

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patent, intellectual property, biotechnology, vaccine, COVID-19, pandemic, Moderna, BioNTech, Pfizer, Patent Trial and Appeal Board, PTAB, post-grant review, inter partes review, written description, anticipation, nonobviousness, enablement, claim construction, skinny label, monoclonal antibodies

54.

Turning Fake Data into Fake News: The AI Training Set as a Trojan Horse of Misinformation

San Diego Law Review, Vol. 60, No. 4, 2023
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 02 Apr 2024
Bill Tomlinson, Donald Patterson and Andrew W. Torrance
University of California, Irvine, Westmont College and University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 18 (972,957)

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Artificial intelligence, AI, fake news, training set, misinformation

55.

Biotechnology Patent Law Top Ten of 2022: Inducement, Clear Error, and Interferences Galore

26 SMU Science and Technology Law Review 317
Number of pages: 65 Posted: 10 Jan 2024
Andrew W. Torrance and Kevin Noonan
University of Kansas School of Law and McDonnell Boehnen Hulbert & Berghoff
Downloads 18 (962,937)

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Biotechnology, Patent, Inducement, Clear Error, Interference, CRISPR-Cas9, Genome Editing, SARS-CoV-2, Pandemic, Genetic Diseases, Diagnostic Methods, Patentable Subject Matter, Federal Circuit, ANDA, Section viii Carve-out, Patentable Subject Matter

56.

Profiting from Data Commons: Theory, Evidence, and Strategy Implications

Jason Potts, Andrew Torrance, Dietmar Harhoff, Eric von Hippel (2023) Profiting from Data Commons: Theory, Evidence, and Strategy Implications. Strategy Science, Articles in Advance 15 Sep 2023 . https://doi.org/10.1287/stsc.2021.0080
Number of pages: 18 Posted: 22 Mar 2024
Royal Melbourne Institute of Technolog (RMIT University), University of Kansas School of Law, Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Sloan School of Management
Downloads 14 (1,003,374)
Citation 1

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diffusion of innovation, ecosystems, market failures, open innovation, patents, intellectual property, technology strategy

57.

If We Could Talk to the Animals, How Should We Discuss Their Legal Rights?

Fordham Law Review, Vol. 92, 2024
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 22 Apr 2024
Andrew W. Torrance and Bill Tomlinson
University of Kansas School of Law and University of California, Irvine
Downloads 10

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animal rights, whale, animal communication, whale communication, constitutional law, artificial intelligence, AI, sperm whale, rights, legal rights, human rights, legal obligations, Magna Carta

58.

The carbon emissions of writing and illustrating are lower for AI than for humans

Tomlinson, B., Black, R.W., Patterson, D.J. and Torrance, A.W. The carbon emissions of writing and illustrating are lower for AI than for humans. Sci Rep 14, 3732 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-024-54271-x
Number of pages: 8
Bill Tomlinson, Rebecca Black, Donald Patterson and Andrew W. Torrance
University of California, Irvine, University of California, Irvine, Westmont College and University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 2

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AI, Artificial intelligence, carbon emissions, environmental impacts, sustainability, ChatGPT, GPT-3, BLOOM, DALL-E2, Midjourney, writing, illustration

59.

FROM RUSSIA WITH LOVE: DMITRY KARSHTEDT’S PATH TO PATENTS

Northwestern Journal of Technology and Intellectual Property, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2024
Number of pages: 8
Andrew W. Torrance
University of Kansas School of Law
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Dmitry Karshtedt, patent, patent law, intellectual property, chemistry, Harvard University, Eliot House, Lowell High School, poetry, University of California Berkeley, Stanford University, George Washington School of Law

60.

Beauty in the Eye of the Judicial Beholder

Gruter Institute Squaw Valley Conference: Law, Institutions & Human Behavior, 2011
Posted: 24 May 2011 Last Revised: 28 May 2011
Andrew W. Torrance
University of Kansas School of Law

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61.

The Evolution and Development of Biolaw

Gruter Institute Squaw Valley Conference 2010: Law, Institutions & Human Behavior
Posted: 15 May 2010
Andrew W. Torrance
University of Kansas School of Law

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Other Papers (2)

Total Downloads: 126
1.

Intellectual Property Issues and Synthetic Biology Standards

33 Nature Biotechnology 24 (2015)
Number of pages: 2 Posted: 13 Jan 2015
Jorge L. Contreras, Arti K. Rai and Andrew W. Torrance
University of Utah - S.J. Quinney College of Law, Duke University School of Law and University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 81

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standards, patent, synthetic biology, FRAND

2.

On the Question: Is Copyright the Way to Gain Intellectual Property Protection for DNA Sequences?

33 Biotechnology Law Report 139, 2014
Number of pages: 2 Posted: 20 Sep 2014
Christopher M. Holman and Andrew W. Torrance
University of Missouri - Kansas City School of Law and University of Kansas School of Law
Downloads 45

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